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The eye-voice span during reading aloud.

Laubrock J, Kliegl R - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low.Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences.Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam Germany.

ABSTRACT
Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS), the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations (SFDs). For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the EVS is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the EVS gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Visualization of LMM estimates of interactions of reading condition (oral vs. silent) with 12 covariates. Colored lines represent partial effects; gray lines represent zero-order effects (i.e., simple regression of SFD on covariate); dots are observed mean SFDs suitably binned for the specific covariate; error bands represent 95% confidence intervals based on LMM residuals. The interactions of reading condition with N-1-frequency, N-frequency, N-1-length, and launch site distance should not be interpreted as such, because they are subordinated to higher-order interactions (see Figure 6). Note that effects are plotted on a log-scale of fixation durations.
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Figure 5: Visualization of LMM estimates of interactions of reading condition (oral vs. silent) with 12 covariates. Colored lines represent partial effects; gray lines represent zero-order effects (i.e., simple regression of SFD on covariate); dots are observed mean SFDs suitably binned for the specific covariate; error bands represent 95% confidence intervals based on LMM residuals. The interactions of reading condition with N-1-frequency, N-frequency, N-1-length, and launch site distance should not be interpreted as such, because they are subordinated to higher-order interactions (see Figure 6). Note that effects are plotted on a log-scale of fixation durations.

Mentions: Effects of word length, frequency, and predictability of the fixated word, corresponding effects of its left and right neighbor as well as effects of launch site, fixation position within word, and the amplitude of the outgoing saccade count among the best-studied covariates for single-fixation duration during silent reading. Figure 5 is modeled on Figure 3 of Kliegl et al. (2006), but displays partial effects both for silent (red lines) and oral (blue lines) reading (i.e., the interaction of reading condition with each covariate). In addition, the gray lines and gray dots in each panel inform about the zero-order (i.e., simple) regression of SFD on the covariates and observed means categorized according to some covariate-dependent binning. Those panels in which the red and blue lines depart substantially from their gray-line neighbors were much affected by statistical control.


The eye-voice span during reading aloud.

Laubrock J, Kliegl R - Front Psychol (2015)

Visualization of LMM estimates of interactions of reading condition (oral vs. silent) with 12 covariates. Colored lines represent partial effects; gray lines represent zero-order effects (i.e., simple regression of SFD on covariate); dots are observed mean SFDs suitably binned for the specific covariate; error bands represent 95% confidence intervals based on LMM residuals. The interactions of reading condition with N-1-frequency, N-frequency, N-1-length, and launch site distance should not be interpreted as such, because they are subordinated to higher-order interactions (see Figure 6). Note that effects are plotted on a log-scale of fixation durations.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585246&req=5

Figure 5: Visualization of LMM estimates of interactions of reading condition (oral vs. silent) with 12 covariates. Colored lines represent partial effects; gray lines represent zero-order effects (i.e., simple regression of SFD on covariate); dots are observed mean SFDs suitably binned for the specific covariate; error bands represent 95% confidence intervals based on LMM residuals. The interactions of reading condition with N-1-frequency, N-frequency, N-1-length, and launch site distance should not be interpreted as such, because they are subordinated to higher-order interactions (see Figure 6). Note that effects are plotted on a log-scale of fixation durations.
Mentions: Effects of word length, frequency, and predictability of the fixated word, corresponding effects of its left and right neighbor as well as effects of launch site, fixation position within word, and the amplitude of the outgoing saccade count among the best-studied covariates for single-fixation duration during silent reading. Figure 5 is modeled on Figure 3 of Kliegl et al. (2006), but displays partial effects both for silent (red lines) and oral (blue lines) reading (i.e., the interaction of reading condition with each covariate). In addition, the gray lines and gray dots in each panel inform about the zero-order (i.e., simple) regression of SFD on the covariates and observed means categorized according to some covariate-dependent binning. Those panels in which the red and blue lines depart substantially from their gray-line neighbors were much affected by statistical control.

Bottom Line: For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low.Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences.Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam Germany.

ABSTRACT
Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS), the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations (SFDs). For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the EVS is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the EVS gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus