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The eye-voice span during reading aloud.

Laubrock J, Kliegl R - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low.Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences.Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam Germany.

ABSTRACT
Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS), the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations (SFDs). For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the EVS is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the EVS gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Visualization of LMM estimates of main effect of onset EVS and three EVS-related interactions; LMM used three continuous covariates. Top left : main effect of EVS; dots are observed mean SFDs at levels of EVS; top right : EVS × N+1 length interaction; second row, left : EVS x N-1 predictability; second row, right : EVS × N predictability; third row : EVS × N-frequency × N-1-frequency; bottom row : EVS × launch site × N-1 length. Factors in panels are based on median splits for visualization; LMM estimation used continuous covariates. Error bands represent 95% confidence intervals based on LMM residuals. Effects are plotted on a log-scale of fixation durations, thus they show the backtransformed effects as they were estimated in the LMM.
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Figure 4: Visualization of LMM estimates of main effect of onset EVS and three EVS-related interactions; LMM used three continuous covariates. Top left : main effect of EVS; dots are observed mean SFDs at levels of EVS; top right : EVS × N+1 length interaction; second row, left : EVS x N-1 predictability; second row, right : EVS × N predictability; third row : EVS × N-frequency × N-1-frequency; bottom row : EVS × launch site × N-1 length. Factors in panels are based on median splits for visualization; LMM estimation used continuous covariates. Error bands represent 95% confidence intervals based on LMM residuals. Effects are plotted on a log-scale of fixation durations, thus they show the backtransformed effects as they were estimated in the LMM.

Mentions: The analyses in the last section demonstrated that EVS at the end of a fixation (offset EVS) is strongly predictive of regressive and refixation saccades. In this section, we test whether fixation durations that are followed by a forward saccade are influenced by onset EVS. On the assumption that not only eye movements (i.e., regressions and refixations), but also fixation durations are in the service of maintaining fluent speech, the spatial EVS at fixation onset, should be predictive of the subsequent fixation duration. Specifically, the expectation is that if the EVS at fixation onset is large, long fixations should follow. There was clear evidence for this hypothesis in the data (see top left panel in Figure 4). The partial effect of onset-EVS on SFD (i.e., the regression line) represents a good fit of the observed mean SFDs at the various EVS levels (i.e., the dots). EVS at fixation onset was one of the strongest predictors of SFD, and had a substantial linear influence that was larger than well-established effects such as word frequency or word predictability.


The eye-voice span during reading aloud.

Laubrock J, Kliegl R - Front Psychol (2015)

Visualization of LMM estimates of main effect of onset EVS and three EVS-related interactions; LMM used three continuous covariates. Top left : main effect of EVS; dots are observed mean SFDs at levels of EVS; top right : EVS × N+1 length interaction; second row, left : EVS x N-1 predictability; second row, right : EVS × N predictability; third row : EVS × N-frequency × N-1-frequency; bottom row : EVS × launch site × N-1 length. Factors in panels are based on median splits for visualization; LMM estimation used continuous covariates. Error bands represent 95% confidence intervals based on LMM residuals. Effects are plotted on a log-scale of fixation durations, thus they show the backtransformed effects as they were estimated in the LMM.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585246&req=5

Figure 4: Visualization of LMM estimates of main effect of onset EVS and three EVS-related interactions; LMM used three continuous covariates. Top left : main effect of EVS; dots are observed mean SFDs at levels of EVS; top right : EVS × N+1 length interaction; second row, left : EVS x N-1 predictability; second row, right : EVS × N predictability; third row : EVS × N-frequency × N-1-frequency; bottom row : EVS × launch site × N-1 length. Factors in panels are based on median splits for visualization; LMM estimation used continuous covariates. Error bands represent 95% confidence intervals based on LMM residuals. Effects are plotted on a log-scale of fixation durations, thus they show the backtransformed effects as they were estimated in the LMM.
Mentions: The analyses in the last section demonstrated that EVS at the end of a fixation (offset EVS) is strongly predictive of regressive and refixation saccades. In this section, we test whether fixation durations that are followed by a forward saccade are influenced by onset EVS. On the assumption that not only eye movements (i.e., regressions and refixations), but also fixation durations are in the service of maintaining fluent speech, the spatial EVS at fixation onset, should be predictive of the subsequent fixation duration. Specifically, the expectation is that if the EVS at fixation onset is large, long fixations should follow. There was clear evidence for this hypothesis in the data (see top left panel in Figure 4). The partial effect of onset-EVS on SFD (i.e., the regression line) represents a good fit of the observed mean SFDs at the various EVS levels (i.e., the dots). EVS at fixation onset was one of the strongest predictors of SFD, and had a substantial linear influence that was larger than well-established effects such as word frequency or word predictability.

Bottom Line: For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low.Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences.Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam Germany.

ABSTRACT
Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS), the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations (SFDs). For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the EVS is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the EVS gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus