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The eye-voice span during reading aloud.

Laubrock J, Kliegl R - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low.Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences.Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam Germany.

ABSTRACT
Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS), the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations (SFDs). For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the EVS is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the EVS gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regression and refixation probabilities as function of EVS at fixation onset (left) and offset (right). Black dots represent overall means, and colored dots predicted means, adjusted for random effects. The lines represent second-order polynomial regression fits (black dotted) or GLMM fits (colored, solid). EVS at fixation onset is already predictive of an upcoming regression or refixations, but offset-EVS is more predictive. When EVS was large at offset, there was a high likelihood of making a regression.
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Figure 3: Regression and refixation probabilities as function of EVS at fixation onset (left) and offset (right). Black dots represent overall means, and colored dots predicted means, adjusted for random effects. The lines represent second-order polynomial regression fits (black dotted) or GLMM fits (colored, solid). EVS at fixation onset is already predictive of an upcoming regression or refixations, but offset-EVS is more predictive. When EVS was large at offset, there was a high likelihood of making a regression.

Mentions: The left panel of Figure 3 shows the key results for regression and refixation probabilities as a function of the EVS at fixation onset. Both probabilities increased with an increase in EVS, suggesting that it is often determined already at the onset of a fixation whether a halt or a regressive eye movement will be programmed. Table 2 shows that for both refixations and regressions, there were purely linear effects on the logit scale, indicating that the odds of making a regression or refixation increase with every character increase in the onset-EVS.


The eye-voice span during reading aloud.

Laubrock J, Kliegl R - Front Psychol (2015)

Regression and refixation probabilities as function of EVS at fixation onset (left) and offset (right). Black dots represent overall means, and colored dots predicted means, adjusted for random effects. The lines represent second-order polynomial regression fits (black dotted) or GLMM fits (colored, solid). EVS at fixation onset is already predictive of an upcoming regression or refixations, but offset-EVS is more predictive. When EVS was large at offset, there was a high likelihood of making a regression.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585246&req=5

Figure 3: Regression and refixation probabilities as function of EVS at fixation onset (left) and offset (right). Black dots represent overall means, and colored dots predicted means, adjusted for random effects. The lines represent second-order polynomial regression fits (black dotted) or GLMM fits (colored, solid). EVS at fixation onset is already predictive of an upcoming regression or refixations, but offset-EVS is more predictive. When EVS was large at offset, there was a high likelihood of making a regression.
Mentions: The left panel of Figure 3 shows the key results for regression and refixation probabilities as a function of the EVS at fixation onset. Both probabilities increased with an increase in EVS, suggesting that it is often determined already at the onset of a fixation whether a halt or a regressive eye movement will be programmed. Table 2 shows that for both refixations and regressions, there were purely linear effects on the logit scale, indicating that the odds of making a regression or refixation increase with every character increase in the onset-EVS.

Bottom Line: For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low.Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences.Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam Germany.

ABSTRACT
Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS), the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations (SFDs). For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the EVS is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the EVS gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus