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The eye-voice span during reading aloud.

Laubrock J, Kliegl R - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low.Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences.Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam Germany.

ABSTRACT
Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS), the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations (SFDs). For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the EVS is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the EVS gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of the eye-voice span (EVS). (A) Time from onset or offset of the first fixation on a word until beginning of pronunciation of the word, (B) spatial distance in letters between position of the eye and (interpolated) position of the voice at fixation onset or offset. Positive numbers indicate that the eye is ahead of the voice.
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Figure 2: Distribution of the eye-voice span (EVS). (A) Time from onset or offset of the first fixation on a word until beginning of pronunciation of the word, (B) spatial distance in letters between position of the eye and (interpolated) position of the voice at fixation onset or offset. Positive numbers indicate that the eye is ahead of the voice.

Mentions: The temporal EVS distributions are displayed in the left panel of Figure 2. The distribution of the EVS in milliseconds from the beginning of the first fixation on a word to the onset of its pronunciation was nearly symmetric, with a mean of 561 ms and a standard deviation of 230 ms (Figure 2, right distribution in left panel). In contrast to most other measures during reading, the interindividual variability in temporal EVS (SD = 73 ms) was smaller than the intraindividual variability (SD = 218 ms). The mean EVS per subject ranged from 428 to 781 ms in our sample. Obviously, during oral-reading fixations the voice is able to catch up with the eyes. Consequently, the temporal EVS from the end of the last fixation on a word to the onset of its pronunciation was much shorter with a mean of 254 ms and a standard deviation of 216 ms (Figure 2, left distribution in left panel). The standard deviations of the onset and offset distributions were not significantly different; Levene’s test, F = 2.66, p = 0.103.


The eye-voice span during reading aloud.

Laubrock J, Kliegl R - Front Psychol (2015)

Distribution of the eye-voice span (EVS). (A) Time from onset or offset of the first fixation on a word until beginning of pronunciation of the word, (B) spatial distance in letters between position of the eye and (interpolated) position of the voice at fixation onset or offset. Positive numbers indicate that the eye is ahead of the voice.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585246&req=5

Figure 2: Distribution of the eye-voice span (EVS). (A) Time from onset or offset of the first fixation on a word until beginning of pronunciation of the word, (B) spatial distance in letters between position of the eye and (interpolated) position of the voice at fixation onset or offset. Positive numbers indicate that the eye is ahead of the voice.
Mentions: The temporal EVS distributions are displayed in the left panel of Figure 2. The distribution of the EVS in milliseconds from the beginning of the first fixation on a word to the onset of its pronunciation was nearly symmetric, with a mean of 561 ms and a standard deviation of 230 ms (Figure 2, right distribution in left panel). In contrast to most other measures during reading, the interindividual variability in temporal EVS (SD = 73 ms) was smaller than the intraindividual variability (SD = 218 ms). The mean EVS per subject ranged from 428 to 781 ms in our sample. Obviously, during oral-reading fixations the voice is able to catch up with the eyes. Consequently, the temporal EVS from the end of the last fixation on a word to the onset of its pronunciation was much shorter with a mean of 254 ms and a standard deviation of 216 ms (Figure 2, left distribution in left panel). The standard deviations of the onset and offset distributions were not significantly different; Levene’s test, F = 2.66, p = 0.103.

Bottom Line: For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low.Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences.Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam Germany.

ABSTRACT
Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS), the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations (SFDs). For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the EVS is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the EVS gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus