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The eye-voice span during reading aloud.

Laubrock J, Kliegl R - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low.Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences.Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam Germany.

ABSTRACT
Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS), the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations (SFDs). For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the EVS is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the EVS gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Examples of eye and voice positions over time during reading of three different sentences. The blue trace shows the eye position, with circles marking fixation onsets and Xs marking fixation offsets. The green line shows the onset times of each word’s pronunciation. See text for details.
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Figure 1: Examples of eye and voice positions over time during reading of three different sentences. The blue trace shows the eye position, with circles marking fixation onsets and Xs marking fixation offsets. The green line shows the onset times of each word’s pronunciation. See text for details.

Mentions: The signature marker of oral reading is the EVS, which can be measured with respect to the temporal or the spatial distance between eye and voice. We illustrate these concepts with three examples. Each panel in Figure 1 shows the traces of the eye (blue line) and the voice (green line) over time during the reading of a sentence. In the top left panel the eye leads the voice by a fairly constant time or distance throughout the sentence. In the top right panel, the EVS all but vanishes during refixations of the word “Studienplatz.” In the bottom left panel, the eye regresses back twice to previous words to wait for the voice to catch up, followed by the eye jumping ahead of the voice again to ensure a distance similar to the one before the regression. Arguably, the latter two cases represent prototypes of how eye and voice take care of a local disturbance. Often this is due to a particularly difficult word, like in the refixations example where, in a way, the difficult word serves as a point of synchronization. The determiner “einen,” on the other hand, is unlikely to cause processing difficulties in normal reading, possibly the function of the regression is to reduce the distance between eye and voice. In the bottom right panel, finally, regressions and refixations are displayed, and a particular pattern appears at the beginning of the sentence, where the eye initially scouts ahead, and makes a regression to the beginning word just before the voice starts pronouncing it. This sentence-initial pattern that looks like an initial re-synchronization to maintain a manageable buffer size was quite typical.


The eye-voice span during reading aloud.

Laubrock J, Kliegl R - Front Psychol (2015)

Examples of eye and voice positions over time during reading of three different sentences. The blue trace shows the eye position, with circles marking fixation onsets and Xs marking fixation offsets. The green line shows the onset times of each word’s pronunciation. See text for details.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585246&req=5

Figure 1: Examples of eye and voice positions over time during reading of three different sentences. The blue trace shows the eye position, with circles marking fixation onsets and Xs marking fixation offsets. The green line shows the onset times of each word’s pronunciation. See text for details.
Mentions: The signature marker of oral reading is the EVS, which can be measured with respect to the temporal or the spatial distance between eye and voice. We illustrate these concepts with three examples. Each panel in Figure 1 shows the traces of the eye (blue line) and the voice (green line) over time during the reading of a sentence. In the top left panel the eye leads the voice by a fairly constant time or distance throughout the sentence. In the top right panel, the EVS all but vanishes during refixations of the word “Studienplatz.” In the bottom left panel, the eye regresses back twice to previous words to wait for the voice to catch up, followed by the eye jumping ahead of the voice again to ensure a distance similar to the one before the regression. Arguably, the latter two cases represent prototypes of how eye and voice take care of a local disturbance. Often this is due to a particularly difficult word, like in the refixations example where, in a way, the difficult word serves as a point of synchronization. The determiner “einen,” on the other hand, is unlikely to cause processing difficulties in normal reading, possibly the function of the regression is to reduce the distance between eye and voice. In the bottom right panel, finally, regressions and refixations are displayed, and a particular pattern appears at the beginning of the sentence, where the eye initially scouts ahead, and makes a regression to the beginning word just before the voice starts pronouncing it. This sentence-initial pattern that looks like an initial re-synchronization to maintain a manageable buffer size was quite typical.

Bottom Line: For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low.Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences.Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam Germany.

ABSTRACT
Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS), the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations (SFDs). For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of SFDs during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the EVS is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the EVS gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus