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The aged brain: genesis and fate of residual progenitor cells in the subventricular zone.

Capilla-Gonzalez V, Herranz-Pérez V, García-Verdugo JM - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: This review provides a compilation of the current knowledge about the age-related changes in the NSC population, as well as the fate of the newly generated cells in the aged brain.It is known that the neurogenic capacity is clearly disrupted during aging, while the production of oligodendroglial cells is not compromised.Interestingly, the human brain seems to primarily preserve the ability to produce new oligodendrocytes instead of neurons, which could be related to the development of neurological disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Comparative Neurobiology, Department of Cell Biology, Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva, University of Valencia, CIBERNED Valencia, Spain ; Department of Stem Cells, Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine Seville, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist in the adult mammalian brain through life. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest source of stem cells in the nervous system, and continuously generates new neuronal and glial cells involved in brain regeneration. During aging, the germinal potential of the SVZ suffers a widespread decline, but the causes of this turn down are not fully understood. This review provides a compilation of the current knowledge about the age-related changes in the NSC population, as well as the fate of the newly generated cells in the aged brain. It is known that the neurogenic capacity is clearly disrupted during aging, while the production of oligodendroglial cells is not compromised. Interestingly, the human brain seems to primarily preserve the ability to produce new oligodendrocytes instead of neurons, which could be related to the development of neurological disorders. Further studies in this matter are required to improve our understanding and the current strategies for fighting neurological diseases associated with senescence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the fate of newly generated cells in the young and aged SVZ. In the young SVZ, an important number of NSCs differentiate into neurons, while they generate oligodendrocytes and astrocytes to a lesser extent. Aging alters the balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis. As consequence, neurogenesis is reduced in the aged SVZ, while oligodrendrogenesis is maintained. It is still under debate whether ependymogenesis occurs in the aged SVZ.
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Figure 3: Schematic representation of the fate of newly generated cells in the young and aged SVZ. In the young SVZ, an important number of NSCs differentiate into neurons, while they generate oligodendrocytes and astrocytes to a lesser extent. Aging alters the balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis. As consequence, neurogenesis is reduced in the aged SVZ, while oligodrendrogenesis is maintained. It is still under debate whether ependymogenesis occurs in the aged SVZ.

Mentions: In addition to changes in the proliferation rate, the fate of the newly generated cells is modified during aging, altering the balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis (Luo et al., 2008; Capilla-Gonzalez et al., 2013, 2014a) (Figure 3).


The aged brain: genesis and fate of residual progenitor cells in the subventricular zone.

Capilla-Gonzalez V, Herranz-Pérez V, García-Verdugo JM - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Schematic representation of the fate of newly generated cells in the young and aged SVZ. In the young SVZ, an important number of NSCs differentiate into neurons, while they generate oligodendrocytes and astrocytes to a lesser extent. Aging alters the balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis. As consequence, neurogenesis is reduced in the aged SVZ, while oligodrendrogenesis is maintained. It is still under debate whether ependymogenesis occurs in the aged SVZ.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585225&req=5

Figure 3: Schematic representation of the fate of newly generated cells in the young and aged SVZ. In the young SVZ, an important number of NSCs differentiate into neurons, while they generate oligodendrocytes and astrocytes to a lesser extent. Aging alters the balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis. As consequence, neurogenesis is reduced in the aged SVZ, while oligodrendrogenesis is maintained. It is still under debate whether ependymogenesis occurs in the aged SVZ.
Mentions: In addition to changes in the proliferation rate, the fate of the newly generated cells is modified during aging, altering the balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis (Luo et al., 2008; Capilla-Gonzalez et al., 2013, 2014a) (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: This review provides a compilation of the current knowledge about the age-related changes in the NSC population, as well as the fate of the newly generated cells in the aged brain.It is known that the neurogenic capacity is clearly disrupted during aging, while the production of oligodendroglial cells is not compromised.Interestingly, the human brain seems to primarily preserve the ability to produce new oligodendrocytes instead of neurons, which could be related to the development of neurological disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Comparative Neurobiology, Department of Cell Biology, Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva, University of Valencia, CIBERNED Valencia, Spain ; Department of Stem Cells, Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine Seville, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist in the adult mammalian brain through life. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest source of stem cells in the nervous system, and continuously generates new neuronal and glial cells involved in brain regeneration. During aging, the germinal potential of the SVZ suffers a widespread decline, but the causes of this turn down are not fully understood. This review provides a compilation of the current knowledge about the age-related changes in the NSC population, as well as the fate of the newly generated cells in the aged brain. It is known that the neurogenic capacity is clearly disrupted during aging, while the production of oligodendroglial cells is not compromised. Interestingly, the human brain seems to primarily preserve the ability to produce new oligodendrocytes instead of neurons, which could be related to the development of neurological disorders. Further studies in this matter are required to improve our understanding and the current strategies for fighting neurological diseases associated with senescence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus