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Neural correlates of reward processing in healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

Hanssen E, van der Velde J, Gromann PM, Shergill SS, de Haan L, Bruggeman R, Krabbendam L, Aleman A, van Atteveldt N - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Studies in patients with SZ have found less activation in the ventral striatum (VS) during anticipation of reward, but these findings do not provide information on effect of the genetic load on reward processing.Thus, in contrast to prior literature in patients with SZ, the results do not point to altered brain activity in classical RP brain areas, such as the VS.However, the weaker deactivation found outside the reward-related network in siblings could indicate reduced task-related suppression (i.e., hyperactivation) of the DMN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Educational Neuroscience and LEARN! Institute, VU University Amsterdam Amsterdam, Netherlands ; CSI Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Deficits in motivational behavior and psychotic symptoms often observed in schizophrenia (SZ) may be driven by dysfunctional reward processing (RP). RP can be divided in two different stages; reward anticipation and reward consumption. Aberrant processing during reward anticipation seems to be related to SZ. Studies in patients with SZ have found less activation in the ventral striatum (VS) during anticipation of reward, but these findings do not provide information on effect of the genetic load on reward processing. Therefore, this study investigated RP in healthy first-degree relatives of SZ patients. The sample consisted of 94 healthy siblings of SZ patients and 57 healthy controls. Participants completed a classic RP task, the Monetary Incentive Delay task, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As expected, there were no behavioral differences between groups. In contrast to our expectations, we found no differences in any of the anticipatory reward related brain areas (region of interest analyses). Whole-brain analyses did reveal group differences during both reward anticipation and reward consumption; during reward anticipation siblings showed less deactivation in the insula, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG) than controls. During reward consumption siblings showed less deactivation in the PCC and the right MFG compared to controls and activation in contrast to deactivation in controls in the precuneus and the left MFG. Exclusively in siblings, MFG activity correlated positively with subclinical negative symptoms. These regions are typically associated with the default mode network (DMN), which normally shows decreases in activation during task-related cognitive processes. Thus, in contrast to prior literature in patients with SZ, the results do not point to altered brain activity in classical RP brain areas, such as the VS. However, the weaker deactivation found outside the reward-related network in siblings could indicate reduced task-related suppression (i.e., hyperactivation) of the DMN. The presence of DMN hyperactivation during reward anticipation and reward consumption might indicate that siblings of patients with SZ have a higher baseline level of DMN activation and possible abnormal network functioning.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Brain activation patterns for the whole-brain overall task effect (reward trials > control trials; whole-brain GLM; N = 151) shown on an anatomical scan of one of the control participants (A) in the reward anticipation phase for overall reward (small and large reward together), (B) in the reward consumption phase (win trials > controls trials; N = 151). VS, ventral striatum; ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; VTA, ventral tegmental area; SN, substantia nigra; mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex; dlPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
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Figure 2: Brain activation patterns for the whole-brain overall task effect (reward trials > control trials; whole-brain GLM; N = 151) shown on an anatomical scan of one of the control participants (A) in the reward anticipation phase for overall reward (small and large reward together), (B) in the reward consumption phase (win trials > controls trials; N = 151). VS, ventral striatum; ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; VTA, ventral tegmental area; SN, substantia nigra; mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex; dlPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

Mentions: First, we evaluated the overall task effect to see if the task produced the expected activation patterns during reward processing. In Figure 2A the regions active for the whole sample during the anticipation of reward (any kind of reward; small or large reward), contrasted with the control trials without reward, are displayed. We observed robust activation in important reward-related areas; a substantial region in and near the caudate, including the VS, a sizable region at the red nucleus containing part of the SN, and the mid/anterior cingulate cortex (Table 2 in the Supplementary Material). For the outcome phase, areas relevant in reward consumption showed activation, including a wide range of other frontal brain areas and, more importantly, including reward-related areas such as parts of the mPFC and the right dlPFC (Figure 2B, and Table 3 in the Supplementary Material).


Neural correlates of reward processing in healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

Hanssen E, van der Velde J, Gromann PM, Shergill SS, de Haan L, Bruggeman R, Krabbendam L, Aleman A, van Atteveldt N - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Brain activation patterns for the whole-brain overall task effect (reward trials > control trials; whole-brain GLM; N = 151) shown on an anatomical scan of one of the control participants (A) in the reward anticipation phase for overall reward (small and large reward together), (B) in the reward consumption phase (win trials > controls trials; N = 151). VS, ventral striatum; ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; VTA, ventral tegmental area; SN, substantia nigra; mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex; dlPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585217&req=5

Figure 2: Brain activation patterns for the whole-brain overall task effect (reward trials > control trials; whole-brain GLM; N = 151) shown on an anatomical scan of one of the control participants (A) in the reward anticipation phase for overall reward (small and large reward together), (B) in the reward consumption phase (win trials > controls trials; N = 151). VS, ventral striatum; ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; VTA, ventral tegmental area; SN, substantia nigra; mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex; dlPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Mentions: First, we evaluated the overall task effect to see if the task produced the expected activation patterns during reward processing. In Figure 2A the regions active for the whole sample during the anticipation of reward (any kind of reward; small or large reward), contrasted with the control trials without reward, are displayed. We observed robust activation in important reward-related areas; a substantial region in and near the caudate, including the VS, a sizable region at the red nucleus containing part of the SN, and the mid/anterior cingulate cortex (Table 2 in the Supplementary Material). For the outcome phase, areas relevant in reward consumption showed activation, including a wide range of other frontal brain areas and, more importantly, including reward-related areas such as parts of the mPFC and the right dlPFC (Figure 2B, and Table 3 in the Supplementary Material).

Bottom Line: Studies in patients with SZ have found less activation in the ventral striatum (VS) during anticipation of reward, but these findings do not provide information on effect of the genetic load on reward processing.Thus, in contrast to prior literature in patients with SZ, the results do not point to altered brain activity in classical RP brain areas, such as the VS.However, the weaker deactivation found outside the reward-related network in siblings could indicate reduced task-related suppression (i.e., hyperactivation) of the DMN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Educational Neuroscience and LEARN! Institute, VU University Amsterdam Amsterdam, Netherlands ; CSI Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Deficits in motivational behavior and psychotic symptoms often observed in schizophrenia (SZ) may be driven by dysfunctional reward processing (RP). RP can be divided in two different stages; reward anticipation and reward consumption. Aberrant processing during reward anticipation seems to be related to SZ. Studies in patients with SZ have found less activation in the ventral striatum (VS) during anticipation of reward, but these findings do not provide information on effect of the genetic load on reward processing. Therefore, this study investigated RP in healthy first-degree relatives of SZ patients. The sample consisted of 94 healthy siblings of SZ patients and 57 healthy controls. Participants completed a classic RP task, the Monetary Incentive Delay task, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As expected, there were no behavioral differences between groups. In contrast to our expectations, we found no differences in any of the anticipatory reward related brain areas (region of interest analyses). Whole-brain analyses did reveal group differences during both reward anticipation and reward consumption; during reward anticipation siblings showed less deactivation in the insula, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG) than controls. During reward consumption siblings showed less deactivation in the PCC and the right MFG compared to controls and activation in contrast to deactivation in controls in the precuneus and the left MFG. Exclusively in siblings, MFG activity correlated positively with subclinical negative symptoms. These regions are typically associated with the default mode network (DMN), which normally shows decreases in activation during task-related cognitive processes. Thus, in contrast to prior literature in patients with SZ, the results do not point to altered brain activity in classical RP brain areas, such as the VS. However, the weaker deactivation found outside the reward-related network in siblings could indicate reduced task-related suppression (i.e., hyperactivation) of the DMN. The presence of DMN hyperactivation during reward anticipation and reward consumption might indicate that siblings of patients with SZ have a higher baseline level of DMN activation and possible abnormal network functioning.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus