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Insights on virulence from the complete genome of Staphylococcus capitis.

Cameron DR, Jiang JH, Hassan KA, Elbourne LD, Tuck KL, Paulsen IT, Peleg AY - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Methylome analysis identified significant adenine methylation across the genome involving two distinct methylation motifs (1972 putative 6-methyladenine (m6A) residues identified).Putative adenine methyltransferases were also identified.Comparative analysis of AYP1020 and the closely related CoNS, S. epidermidis RP62a, revealed a host of virulence factors that likely contribute to S. capitis pathogenicity, most notably genes important for biofilm formation and a suite of phenol soluble modulins (PSMs); the expression/production of these factors were corroborated by functional assays.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Monash University Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Staphylococcus capitis is an opportunistic pathogen of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). Functional genomic studies of S. capitis have thus far been limited by a lack of available complete genome sequences. Here, we determined the closed S. capitis genome and methylome using Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing. The strain, AYP1020, harbors a single circular chromosome of 2.44 Mb encoding 2304 predicted proteins, which is the smallest of all complete staphylococcal genomes sequenced to date. AYP1020 harbors two large mobile genetic elements; a plasmid designated pAYP1020 (59.6 Kb) and a prophage, ╬ŽAYP1020 (48.5 Kb). Methylome analysis identified significant adenine methylation across the genome involving two distinct methylation motifs (1972 putative 6-methyladenine (m6A) residues identified). Putative adenine methyltransferases were also identified. Comparative analysis of AYP1020 and the closely related CoNS, S. epidermidis RP62a, revealed a host of virulence factors that likely contribute to S. capitis pathogenicity, most notably genes important for biofilm formation and a suite of phenol soluble modulins (PSMs); the expression/production of these factors were corroborated by functional assays. The complete S. capitis genome will aid future studies on the evolution and pathogenesis of the coagulase negative staphylococci.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neighbor-joining tree showing the relationship between S. capitis AYP1020 and other sequenced CoNS strains. Phylogeny was inferred using the MLST scheme developed for S. epidermidis. S. capitis AYP1020 is represented in bold.
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Figure 1: Neighbor-joining tree showing the relationship between S. capitis AYP1020 and other sequenced CoNS strains. Phylogeny was inferred using the MLST scheme developed for S. epidermidis. S. capitis AYP1020 is represented in bold.

Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between AYP1020 and other S. capitis strains for which genome sequence information was available, particularly S. capitis SK14 and S. capitis VCU116 (Figure 1). The analysis also shows that S. capitis has closer evolutionary links to S. epidermidis than other clinically relevant coagulase negative staphylococci (Figure 1). S. capitis strain AYP1020 has a 2,443,605 bp chromosome with a GC content of 33.0% (Figure 2). The chromosome is predicted to contain 2304 protein-coding DNA sequences, six rRNA operons, 63 tRNA genes and a single tmRNA (Table 1). S. capitis AYP1020 represents the smallest genome of all closed staphylococcal genomes sequenced to date, with the fewest predicted CDS.


Insights on virulence from the complete genome of Staphylococcus capitis.

Cameron DR, Jiang JH, Hassan KA, Elbourne LD, Tuck KL, Paulsen IT, Peleg AY - Front Microbiol (2015)

Neighbor-joining tree showing the relationship between S. capitis AYP1020 and other sequenced CoNS strains. Phylogeny was inferred using the MLST scheme developed for S. epidermidis. S. capitis AYP1020 is represented in bold.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585213&req=5

Figure 1: Neighbor-joining tree showing the relationship between S. capitis AYP1020 and other sequenced CoNS strains. Phylogeny was inferred using the MLST scheme developed for S. epidermidis. S. capitis AYP1020 is represented in bold.
Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between AYP1020 and other S. capitis strains for which genome sequence information was available, particularly S. capitis SK14 and S. capitis VCU116 (Figure 1). The analysis also shows that S. capitis has closer evolutionary links to S. epidermidis than other clinically relevant coagulase negative staphylococci (Figure 1). S. capitis strain AYP1020 has a 2,443,605 bp chromosome with a GC content of 33.0% (Figure 2). The chromosome is predicted to contain 2304 protein-coding DNA sequences, six rRNA operons, 63 tRNA genes and a single tmRNA (Table 1). S. capitis AYP1020 represents the smallest genome of all closed staphylococcal genomes sequenced to date, with the fewest predicted CDS.

Bottom Line: Methylome analysis identified significant adenine methylation across the genome involving two distinct methylation motifs (1972 putative 6-methyladenine (m6A) residues identified).Putative adenine methyltransferases were also identified.Comparative analysis of AYP1020 and the closely related CoNS, S. epidermidis RP62a, revealed a host of virulence factors that likely contribute to S. capitis pathogenicity, most notably genes important for biofilm formation and a suite of phenol soluble modulins (PSMs); the expression/production of these factors were corroborated by functional assays.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Monash University Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Staphylococcus capitis is an opportunistic pathogen of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). Functional genomic studies of S. capitis have thus far been limited by a lack of available complete genome sequences. Here, we determined the closed S. capitis genome and methylome using Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing. The strain, AYP1020, harbors a single circular chromosome of 2.44 Mb encoding 2304 predicted proteins, which is the smallest of all complete staphylococcal genomes sequenced to date. AYP1020 harbors two large mobile genetic elements; a plasmid designated pAYP1020 (59.6 Kb) and a prophage, ╬ŽAYP1020 (48.5 Kb). Methylome analysis identified significant adenine methylation across the genome involving two distinct methylation motifs (1972 putative 6-methyladenine (m6A) residues identified). Putative adenine methyltransferases were also identified. Comparative analysis of AYP1020 and the closely related CoNS, S. epidermidis RP62a, revealed a host of virulence factors that likely contribute to S. capitis pathogenicity, most notably genes important for biofilm formation and a suite of phenol soluble modulins (PSMs); the expression/production of these factors were corroborated by functional assays. The complete S. capitis genome will aid future studies on the evolution and pathogenesis of the coagulase negative staphylococci.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus