Limits...
Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation.

Cao Y, Yu H, Wu Y, Zhou X - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship.In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in general and showed no difference in their offers to the monetary and social partners.These findings demonstrate that the effectiveness of compensation varies as a function of individuals' preference for communal versus monetary norm and that monetary compensation alone does not heal all wounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Department of Psychology, Peking University Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people's appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals' perception of others' as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflicted noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner gave money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bore the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner). Results showed that the individuals' preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing noise) affected their relationship (exchange versus communal) with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in general and showed no difference in their offers to the monetary and social partners. These findings demonstrate that the effectiveness of compensation varies as a function of individuals' preference for communal versus monetary norm and that monetary compensation alone does not heal all wounds.

No MeSH data available.


The task in the second phase. Each trial began with a cue indicating which of the two partners had been chosen for that particular round. The next screen presented the pain-level of the current trial (none/low/high). Then the participant performed the dot-estimation task. The outcome of the performance was communicated to both the participant and the partner on the next screen. After a correct performance, the participant received 100 monetary tokens as a reward, and the next round began. After an incorrect performance, the partner had to bear pain stimulation. Finally, the participant indicated the amount of monetary tokens (out of 100) he/she would be willing to pay out of his/her own pocket to compensate the partner.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585206&req=5

Figure 2: The task in the second phase. Each trial began with a cue indicating which of the two partners had been chosen for that particular round. The next screen presented the pain-level of the current trial (none/low/high). Then the participant performed the dot-estimation task. The outcome of the performance was communicated to both the participant and the partner on the next screen. After a correct performance, the participant received 100 monetary tokens as a reward, and the next round began. After an incorrect performance, the partner had to bear pain stimulation. Finally, the participant indicated the amount of monetary tokens (out of 100) he/she would be willing to pay out of his/her own pocket to compensate the partner.

Mentions: In the second phase of the study (Figure 2), the roles of the participant and the partners were reversed; the participant was informed that the partners were not aware of the role-change until then. The participant was then told that in each round, his/her partner had to bear a pain stimulation if he/she (i.e., the participant) estimated incorrectly. The intensity of the electrical stimulation for the partner was randomly chosen from three levels (none/low/high) for each round of the game. The level of pain stimulation delivered to the partner in that trial was communicated to the participant. After pain delivery, the participant decided how many monetary tokens (between 0 and 100) he/she would like to transfer to the partner as compensation. Note, the participant could compensate the partner only by allocating money. The participant was also told that he/she would get 100 tokens as a reward (and the partner would not receive pain stimulation) if he/she made a correct estimation. Thus participant’s account was always sufficient to pay 100 tokens in each round. Unbeknownst to the participant, the feedback of the performance was predetermined. Specifically, there were 72 trials (36 for each partner) in the second phase of study. For the interaction with each partner, there were 18 rounds in which the participant responded correctly (fillers) and 18 rounds in which the participant responded incorrectly. For the latter rounds, there were six rounds in which the partners had to receive high pain stimulation, six rounds of low pain stimulation, and another six rounds of no pain stimulation. On average, the participant could make ¥45 (∼ $ 8; ¥40 for show-up and about ¥5 for bonus).


Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation.

Cao Y, Yu H, Wu Y, Zhou X - Front Psychol (2015)

The task in the second phase. Each trial began with a cue indicating which of the two partners had been chosen for that particular round. The next screen presented the pain-level of the current trial (none/low/high). Then the participant performed the dot-estimation task. The outcome of the performance was communicated to both the participant and the partner on the next screen. After a correct performance, the participant received 100 monetary tokens as a reward, and the next round began. After an incorrect performance, the partner had to bear pain stimulation. Finally, the participant indicated the amount of monetary tokens (out of 100) he/she would be willing to pay out of his/her own pocket to compensate the partner.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585206&req=5

Figure 2: The task in the second phase. Each trial began with a cue indicating which of the two partners had been chosen for that particular round. The next screen presented the pain-level of the current trial (none/low/high). Then the participant performed the dot-estimation task. The outcome of the performance was communicated to both the participant and the partner on the next screen. After a correct performance, the participant received 100 monetary tokens as a reward, and the next round began. After an incorrect performance, the partner had to bear pain stimulation. Finally, the participant indicated the amount of monetary tokens (out of 100) he/she would be willing to pay out of his/her own pocket to compensate the partner.
Mentions: In the second phase of the study (Figure 2), the roles of the participant and the partners were reversed; the participant was informed that the partners were not aware of the role-change until then. The participant was then told that in each round, his/her partner had to bear a pain stimulation if he/she (i.e., the participant) estimated incorrectly. The intensity of the electrical stimulation for the partner was randomly chosen from three levels (none/low/high) for each round of the game. The level of pain stimulation delivered to the partner in that trial was communicated to the participant. After pain delivery, the participant decided how many monetary tokens (between 0 and 100) he/she would like to transfer to the partner as compensation. Note, the participant could compensate the partner only by allocating money. The participant was also told that he/she would get 100 tokens as a reward (and the partner would not receive pain stimulation) if he/she made a correct estimation. Thus participant’s account was always sufficient to pay 100 tokens in each round. Unbeknownst to the participant, the feedback of the performance was predetermined. Specifically, there were 72 trials (36 for each partner) in the second phase of study. For the interaction with each partner, there were 18 rounds in which the participant responded correctly (fillers) and 18 rounds in which the participant responded incorrectly. For the latter rounds, there were six rounds in which the partners had to receive high pain stimulation, six rounds of low pain stimulation, and another six rounds of no pain stimulation. On average, the participant could make ¥45 (∼ $ 8; ¥40 for show-up and about ¥5 for bonus).

Bottom Line: The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship.In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in general and showed no difference in their offers to the monetary and social partners.These findings demonstrate that the effectiveness of compensation varies as a function of individuals' preference for communal versus monetary norm and that monetary compensation alone does not heal all wounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Department of Psychology, Peking University Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people's appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals' perception of others' as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflicted noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner gave money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bore the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner). Results showed that the individuals' preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing noise) affected their relationship (exchange versus communal) with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in general and showed no difference in their offers to the monetary and social partners. These findings demonstrate that the effectiveness of compensation varies as a function of individuals' preference for communal versus monetary norm and that monetary compensation alone does not heal all wounds.

No MeSH data available.