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Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders.

Agrawal M, Biswas A - Front Mol Biosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases.We describe advances made in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock Little Rock, AR, USA.

ABSTRACT
Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Different molecular pathways altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of these deregulated mechanisms prompt motor neuron death. (Figure taken from: Calvo et al., 2014).
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Figure 1: Different molecular pathways altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of these deregulated mechanisms prompt motor neuron death. (Figure taken from: Calvo et al., 2014).

Mentions: ALS is a rapidly progressive, invariably fatal neurological disease that attacks the neurons responsible for controlling voluntary muscles. Messages from motor neurons in the brain (called upper motor neurons) are transmitted to motor neurons in the spinal cord (called lower motor neurons) and from them to particular muscles. In ALS, both the upper and lower motor neurons degenerate or die, and stop sending messages to muscles. Unable to function, the muscles gradually weaken, waste away (atrophy), and have very fine twitches (called fasciculation). Eventually, the ability of the brain to start and control voluntary movement is lost. ALS is a result of complex array of factors, including all or just some of these like oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulated endosomal trafficking, dysregulated transcription, and RNA processing, excitotoxicity, apoptosis, inflammation, and genetic susceptibility (Figure 1; Calvo et al., 2014).


Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders.

Agrawal M, Biswas A - Front Mol Biosci (2015)

Different molecular pathways altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of these deregulated mechanisms prompt motor neuron death. (Figure taken from: Calvo et al., 2014).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585189&req=5

Figure 1: Different molecular pathways altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of these deregulated mechanisms prompt motor neuron death. (Figure taken from: Calvo et al., 2014).
Mentions: ALS is a rapidly progressive, invariably fatal neurological disease that attacks the neurons responsible for controlling voluntary muscles. Messages from motor neurons in the brain (called upper motor neurons) are transmitted to motor neurons in the spinal cord (called lower motor neurons) and from them to particular muscles. In ALS, both the upper and lower motor neurons degenerate or die, and stop sending messages to muscles. Unable to function, the muscles gradually weaken, waste away (atrophy), and have very fine twitches (called fasciculation). Eventually, the ability of the brain to start and control voluntary movement is lost. ALS is a result of complex array of factors, including all or just some of these like oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulated endosomal trafficking, dysregulated transcription, and RNA processing, excitotoxicity, apoptosis, inflammation, and genetic susceptibility (Figure 1; Calvo et al., 2014).

Bottom Line: Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases.We describe advances made in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock Little Rock, AR, USA.

ABSTRACT
Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus