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Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes.

Banhara A, Ding Y, Kühner R, Zuccaro A, Parniske M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs.A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type.Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biology, Institute of Genetics, University of Munich Martinsried, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs and that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of P. indica or P. williamsii on the biomass of A. thaliana. (A) Box-plots show the fresh weight of the indicated A. thaliana genotypes (ca. 15 plants/genotype) grown in the presence or absence of P. indica or P. williamsii. All plant genotypes accumulated more biomass upon co-cultivation with P. indica but not with P. williamsii. White box: mock; light gray box: P. indica; dark gray box: P. williamsii. Open circles: outliers. Statistical analyses were performed using a Kruskal–Wallis test followed by a Bonferroni–Holm correction using the mock-inoculated samples as control group. Groups that do not share the same letter are significantly different (at the 5% significance level). Comparisons between the three treatments were made for each genotype separately. Plant biomass was determined 7 dpi. (B) Representative plates showing sets of 14-day-old plants grown on modified HO medium are shown 7 days after mock-treatment with Tween water (left) or inoculation with either P. indica (center) or P. williamsii (right) chlamydospores. 1: pollux; 2: sec13 × nup133; 3: nup133; 4: sec13; 5: Col-0.
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Figure 5: Effect of P. indica or P. williamsii on the biomass of A. thaliana. (A) Box-plots show the fresh weight of the indicated A. thaliana genotypes (ca. 15 plants/genotype) grown in the presence or absence of P. indica or P. williamsii. All plant genotypes accumulated more biomass upon co-cultivation with P. indica but not with P. williamsii. White box: mock; light gray box: P. indica; dark gray box: P. williamsii. Open circles: outliers. Statistical analyses were performed using a Kruskal–Wallis test followed by a Bonferroni–Holm correction using the mock-inoculated samples as control group. Groups that do not share the same letter are significantly different (at the 5% significance level). Comparisons between the three treatments were made for each genotype separately. Plant biomass was determined 7 dpi. (B) Representative plates showing sets of 14-day-old plants grown on modified HO medium are shown 7 days after mock-treatment with Tween water (left) or inoculation with either P. indica (center) or P. williamsii (right) chlamydospores. 1: pollux; 2: sec13 × nup133; 3: nup133; 4: sec13; 5: Col-0.

Mentions: We investigated the influence of A. thaliana HCSGs on the host growth-promoting effect of P. indica. As a control, we included the closely related sebacinoid fungus P. williamsii (Basiewicz et al., 2012; Lahrmann et al., 2013), which did not induce or induced very little growth promotion of A. thaliana Col-0 (Lahrmann et al., 2013). Wild-type and mutant plants inoculated with P. indica had a significant higher mean fresh weight than control or P. williamsii-inoculated plants (Figure 5). Importantly, wild-type and mutant roots did not differ in their biomass upon P. indica inoculation. We conclude that the HCSGs POLLUX, NUP133, and SEC13 are not required for the growth promotion of A. thaliana by P. indica, confirming previous observations with atpollux mutants (Shahollari et al., 2007).


Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes.

Banhara A, Ding Y, Kühner R, Zuccaro A, Parniske M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Effect of P. indica or P. williamsii on the biomass of A. thaliana. (A) Box-plots show the fresh weight of the indicated A. thaliana genotypes (ca. 15 plants/genotype) grown in the presence or absence of P. indica or P. williamsii. All plant genotypes accumulated more biomass upon co-cultivation with P. indica but not with P. williamsii. White box: mock; light gray box: P. indica; dark gray box: P. williamsii. Open circles: outliers. Statistical analyses were performed using a Kruskal–Wallis test followed by a Bonferroni–Holm correction using the mock-inoculated samples as control group. Groups that do not share the same letter are significantly different (at the 5% significance level). Comparisons between the three treatments were made for each genotype separately. Plant biomass was determined 7 dpi. (B) Representative plates showing sets of 14-day-old plants grown on modified HO medium are shown 7 days after mock-treatment with Tween water (left) or inoculation with either P. indica (center) or P. williamsii (right) chlamydospores. 1: pollux; 2: sec13 × nup133; 3: nup133; 4: sec13; 5: Col-0.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585188&req=5

Figure 5: Effect of P. indica or P. williamsii on the biomass of A. thaliana. (A) Box-plots show the fresh weight of the indicated A. thaliana genotypes (ca. 15 plants/genotype) grown in the presence or absence of P. indica or P. williamsii. All plant genotypes accumulated more biomass upon co-cultivation with P. indica but not with P. williamsii. White box: mock; light gray box: P. indica; dark gray box: P. williamsii. Open circles: outliers. Statistical analyses were performed using a Kruskal–Wallis test followed by a Bonferroni–Holm correction using the mock-inoculated samples as control group. Groups that do not share the same letter are significantly different (at the 5% significance level). Comparisons between the three treatments were made for each genotype separately. Plant biomass was determined 7 dpi. (B) Representative plates showing sets of 14-day-old plants grown on modified HO medium are shown 7 days after mock-treatment with Tween water (left) or inoculation with either P. indica (center) or P. williamsii (right) chlamydospores. 1: pollux; 2: sec13 × nup133; 3: nup133; 4: sec13; 5: Col-0.
Mentions: We investigated the influence of A. thaliana HCSGs on the host growth-promoting effect of P. indica. As a control, we included the closely related sebacinoid fungus P. williamsii (Basiewicz et al., 2012; Lahrmann et al., 2013), which did not induce or induced very little growth promotion of A. thaliana Col-0 (Lahrmann et al., 2013). Wild-type and mutant plants inoculated with P. indica had a significant higher mean fresh weight than control or P. williamsii-inoculated plants (Figure 5). Importantly, wild-type and mutant roots did not differ in their biomass upon P. indica inoculation. We conclude that the HCSGs POLLUX, NUP133, and SEC13 are not required for the growth promotion of A. thaliana by P. indica, confirming previous observations with atpollux mutants (Shahollari et al., 2007).

Bottom Line: Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs.A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type.Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biology, Institute of Genetics, University of Munich Martinsried, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs and that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus