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Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes.

Banhara A, Ding Y, Kühner R, Zuccaro A, Parniske M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs.A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type.Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biology, Institute of Genetics, University of Munich Martinsried, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs and that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of P. indica on the stem height of L. japonicus and A. thaliana grown in high or low nutrient soil. Box-plots represent the stem height of ca. 20 plants per treatment at the indicated dpi. (A,B) In high-nutrient soil (500 mg l−1 N, 500 mg l−1 P, 500 mg l−1 K), inoculation with P. indica did not change plant stem height at 21 dpi (p > 0.05). (C,D) On low-nutrient soil (50–100 mg l−1 N, 50–100 mg l−1 P, 100–150 mg l−1 K), P. indica inoculation led to an increase in the mean stem height at 21 dpi (p < 0.05). Statistical analyses were performed with a Kruskal–Wallis test followed by a Bonferroni–Holm correction using the mock-inoculated plants as control group. For each mock/P. indica-inoculated pair, box-plots sharing the same letter do not significantly differ (at the 5% significance level). White boxes: mock; gray boxes: P. indica-inoculated; open circles: outliers. (E,F) Exemplary pictures of P. indica- and mock-inoculated plants grown in low nutrient soil. Experiments were performed three times with similar results.
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Figure 4: Effect of P. indica on the stem height of L. japonicus and A. thaliana grown in high or low nutrient soil. Box-plots represent the stem height of ca. 20 plants per treatment at the indicated dpi. (A,B) In high-nutrient soil (500 mg l−1 N, 500 mg l−1 P, 500 mg l−1 K), inoculation with P. indica did not change plant stem height at 21 dpi (p > 0.05). (C,D) On low-nutrient soil (50–100 mg l−1 N, 50–100 mg l−1 P, 100–150 mg l−1 K), P. indica inoculation led to an increase in the mean stem height at 21 dpi (p < 0.05). Statistical analyses were performed with a Kruskal–Wallis test followed by a Bonferroni–Holm correction using the mock-inoculated plants as control group. For each mock/P. indica-inoculated pair, box-plots sharing the same letter do not significantly differ (at the 5% significance level). White boxes: mock; gray boxes: P. indica-inoculated; open circles: outliers. (E,F) Exemplary pictures of P. indica- and mock-inoculated plants grown in low nutrient soil. Experiments were performed three times with similar results.

Mentions: In order to obtain an experimental system for the genetic dissection of the P. indica-mediated growth promotion (Peškan-Berghöfer et al., 2004; Shahollari et al., 2007; Sherameti et al., 2008; Camehl et al., 2010, 2011; Nongbri et al., 2012; Lahrmann et al., 2013; Venus and Oelmüller, 2013), we explored the influence of the substrate and nutrient availability. We evaluated the effect of P. indica on L. japonicus and A. thaliana grown in soil with two different nutrient concentrations. In both plant species, co-cultivation with P. indica in soil with high nutrient concentrations had little or no effect on the mean stem height. However, in soil with lower nutrient contents, P. indica inoculation roughly doubled the mean stem height of A. thaliana plants at 21 dpi, whereas there was only a small but significant effect on L. japonicus (Figure 4).


Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes.

Banhara A, Ding Y, Kühner R, Zuccaro A, Parniske M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Effect of P. indica on the stem height of L. japonicus and A. thaliana grown in high or low nutrient soil. Box-plots represent the stem height of ca. 20 plants per treatment at the indicated dpi. (A,B) In high-nutrient soil (500 mg l−1 N, 500 mg l−1 P, 500 mg l−1 K), inoculation with P. indica did not change plant stem height at 21 dpi (p > 0.05). (C,D) On low-nutrient soil (50–100 mg l−1 N, 50–100 mg l−1 P, 100–150 mg l−1 K), P. indica inoculation led to an increase in the mean stem height at 21 dpi (p < 0.05). Statistical analyses were performed with a Kruskal–Wallis test followed by a Bonferroni–Holm correction using the mock-inoculated plants as control group. For each mock/P. indica-inoculated pair, box-plots sharing the same letter do not significantly differ (at the 5% significance level). White boxes: mock; gray boxes: P. indica-inoculated; open circles: outliers. (E,F) Exemplary pictures of P. indica- and mock-inoculated plants grown in low nutrient soil. Experiments were performed three times with similar results.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585188&req=5

Figure 4: Effect of P. indica on the stem height of L. japonicus and A. thaliana grown in high or low nutrient soil. Box-plots represent the stem height of ca. 20 plants per treatment at the indicated dpi. (A,B) In high-nutrient soil (500 mg l−1 N, 500 mg l−1 P, 500 mg l−1 K), inoculation with P. indica did not change plant stem height at 21 dpi (p > 0.05). (C,D) On low-nutrient soil (50–100 mg l−1 N, 50–100 mg l−1 P, 100–150 mg l−1 K), P. indica inoculation led to an increase in the mean stem height at 21 dpi (p < 0.05). Statistical analyses were performed with a Kruskal–Wallis test followed by a Bonferroni–Holm correction using the mock-inoculated plants as control group. For each mock/P. indica-inoculated pair, box-plots sharing the same letter do not significantly differ (at the 5% significance level). White boxes: mock; gray boxes: P. indica-inoculated; open circles: outliers. (E,F) Exemplary pictures of P. indica- and mock-inoculated plants grown in low nutrient soil. Experiments were performed three times with similar results.
Mentions: In order to obtain an experimental system for the genetic dissection of the P. indica-mediated growth promotion (Peškan-Berghöfer et al., 2004; Shahollari et al., 2007; Sherameti et al., 2008; Camehl et al., 2010, 2011; Nongbri et al., 2012; Lahrmann et al., 2013; Venus and Oelmüller, 2013), we explored the influence of the substrate and nutrient availability. We evaluated the effect of P. indica on L. japonicus and A. thaliana grown in soil with two different nutrient concentrations. In both plant species, co-cultivation with P. indica in soil with high nutrient concentrations had little or no effect on the mean stem height. However, in soil with lower nutrient contents, P. indica inoculation roughly doubled the mean stem height of A. thaliana plants at 21 dpi, whereas there was only a small but significant effect on L. japonicus (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs.A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type.Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biology, Institute of Genetics, University of Munich Martinsried, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs and that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus