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Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes.

Banhara A, Ding Y, Kühner R, Zuccaro A, Parniske M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs.A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type.Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biology, Institute of Genetics, University of Munich Martinsried, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs and that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Colonization of A. thaliana root cells by P. indica. Hyphae (indicated by asterisks) were detected 4 dpi with P. indica chlamydospores within root cells of wild-type (Col-0) and the indicated HCSG mutants. Extracellular hyphae were stained with WGA-AF488 (green) but intracellular hyphae were not or weakly fluorescent, probably due to limited access of WGA-AF488 to the fungal cell wall within root cells. FM4-64-stained plant material (red) within invaded host cells is indicative of stage 1 or 2 of the infection process. Scale bar 10 μm.
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Figure 2: Colonization of A. thaliana root cells by P. indica. Hyphae (indicated by asterisks) were detected 4 dpi with P. indica chlamydospores within root cells of wild-type (Col-0) and the indicated HCSG mutants. Extracellular hyphae were stained with WGA-AF488 (green) but intracellular hyphae were not or weakly fluorescent, probably due to limited access of WGA-AF488 to the fungal cell wall within root cells. FM4-64-stained plant material (red) within invaded host cells is indicative of stage 1 or 2 of the infection process. Scale bar 10 μm.

Mentions: Moreover, we observed that A. thaliana wild-type (Col-0), which lacks some of the key CSGs (Delaux et al., 2014), supported intracellular root colonization and sporulation by P. indica (Figure 2 and Supplementary Figure 3). In addition, intracellular infection and sporulation also occurred in the roots of the A. thaliana HCSG mutants pollux, nup133, sec13, and the double mutants sec13 × nup133 and shrk1 × shrk2 (Figure 2 and Supplementary Figure 3), indicating that the fungus could successfully infect these mutants and complete its life cycle. These observations strongly support the conclusion that neither the CSGs which A. thaliana lost during its evolution nor the experimentally mutated HCSGs are required for the interaction with P. indica.


Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes.

Banhara A, Ding Y, Kühner R, Zuccaro A, Parniske M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Colonization of A. thaliana root cells by P. indica. Hyphae (indicated by asterisks) were detected 4 dpi with P. indica chlamydospores within root cells of wild-type (Col-0) and the indicated HCSG mutants. Extracellular hyphae were stained with WGA-AF488 (green) but intracellular hyphae were not or weakly fluorescent, probably due to limited access of WGA-AF488 to the fungal cell wall within root cells. FM4-64-stained plant material (red) within invaded host cells is indicative of stage 1 or 2 of the infection process. Scale bar 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585188&req=5

Figure 2: Colonization of A. thaliana root cells by P. indica. Hyphae (indicated by asterisks) were detected 4 dpi with P. indica chlamydospores within root cells of wild-type (Col-0) and the indicated HCSG mutants. Extracellular hyphae were stained with WGA-AF488 (green) but intracellular hyphae were not or weakly fluorescent, probably due to limited access of WGA-AF488 to the fungal cell wall within root cells. FM4-64-stained plant material (red) within invaded host cells is indicative of stage 1 or 2 of the infection process. Scale bar 10 μm.
Mentions: Moreover, we observed that A. thaliana wild-type (Col-0), which lacks some of the key CSGs (Delaux et al., 2014), supported intracellular root colonization and sporulation by P. indica (Figure 2 and Supplementary Figure 3). In addition, intracellular infection and sporulation also occurred in the roots of the A. thaliana HCSG mutants pollux, nup133, sec13, and the double mutants sec13 × nup133 and shrk1 × shrk2 (Figure 2 and Supplementary Figure 3), indicating that the fungus could successfully infect these mutants and complete its life cycle. These observations strongly support the conclusion that neither the CSGs which A. thaliana lost during its evolution nor the experimentally mutated HCSGs are required for the interaction with P. indica.

Bottom Line: Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs.A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type.Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biology, Institute of Genetics, University of Munich Martinsried, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs and that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus