Limits...
New process for production of fermented black table olives using selected autochthonous microbial resources.

Tufariello M, Durante M, Ramires FA, Grieco F, Tommasi L, Perbellini E, Falco V, Tasioula-Margari M, Logrieco AF, Mita G, Bleve G - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: All starters formulation were able to dominate fermentation process.A significant decrease of fermentation time (from 8 to 12 months to a maximum of 3 months) and an significant improvement in organoleptic characteristics of the final product were obtained.This study, for the first time, describes the employment of selected autochthonous microbial resources optimized to mimic the microbial evolution already recorded during spontaneous fermentations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Unità Operativa di Lecce Lecce, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Table olives represent one important fermented product in Europe and, in the world, their demand is constantly increasing. At the present time, no systems are available to control black table olives spontaneous fermentation by the Greek method. During this study, a new protocol for the production of black table olives belonging to two Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and two Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars has been developed: for each table olive cultivar, starter-driven fermentations were performed inoculating, firstly, one selected autochthonous yeast starter and, subsequently, one selected autochthonous LAB starter. All starters formulation were able to dominate fermentation process. The olive fermentation was monitored using specific chemical descriptors able to identify a first stage (30 days) mainly characterized by aldehydes; a second period (60 days) mainly characterized by higher alcohols, styrene and terpenes; a third fermentation stage represented by acetate esters, esters and acids. A significant decrease of fermentation time (from 8 to 12 months to a maximum of 3 months) and an significant improvement in organoleptic characteristics of the final product were obtained. This study, for the first time, describes the employment of selected autochthonous microbial resources optimized to mimic the microbial evolution already recorded during spontaneous fermentations.

No MeSH data available.


PCA of volatile compounds associated with (A) Leccino and (B) Cellina di Nardò starter-driven fermented table olives. PCA variables were the data obtained from the analysis of concentration and presence of volatile compounds at three different fermentation times. The figure displays the sample scores and variable loadings in the planes formed by PC1–PC2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585182&req=5

Figure 5: PCA of volatile compounds associated with (A) Leccino and (B) Cellina di Nardò starter-driven fermented table olives. PCA variables were the data obtained from the analysis of concentration and presence of volatile compounds at three different fermentation times. The figure displays the sample scores and variable loadings in the planes formed by PC1–PC2.

Mentions: Chemical data were correlated with the activities of mixed starter microorganisms by a PCA analysis was carried out on the global SPME/GC-MS data matrix of each olive sample. The mean values of each volatile compound (variables) obtained at 30-60-90 days of fermentation was analyzed and plotted. Bi-plots displaying PC1 vs. PC2 are illustrated in Figures 5, 6, which show the projection of the variables on the plane defined by the first and second principal components. The two planes made using the first two PCs showed clustering of the molecules into three groups. In all the four starter-driven fermentations, one group, consisting of aldehydes (hexanal in all the four cultivars; 2 methyl butanal, 3 methyl butanal in Leccino, Cellina di Nardò and Kalamàta; 2 methyl propanal in Leccino and Kalamàta; nonanal in Cellina di Nardò and Conservolea), were closely associated to the first fermentation stage (T30) (Figures 5, 6; Supplementary Tables 1–4). The second group consisted of higher alcohols (2-methyl-1-propanol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-methyl-1-butanol in all the four fermentations; hexanol was present in Cellina di Nardò, Kalamàta and Conservolea; 3-methyl-1-butanol was present in Leccino, Kalamàta and Conservolea; propanol and heptanol were characteristics of Leccino), styrene and terpenes (3,7 dimethyl 1,3,7, octatriene in Cellina di Nardò, Kalamàta and Conservolea; limonene in Leccino; farnesene in Kalamàta and Conservolea; copaene in Conservolea; 2,6 dimethyl 2,4,6 octatriene and 3,7 dimethyl 1,6 octadien 3 ol in Kalamàta) associated in all fermentations with the middle stage of fermentation (T60) (Figures 5, 6; Supplementary Tables 1–4). third group contained acetate esters (isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate) and esters (ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate) in all the four fermentations. In addition, Greek cultivars were also characterized by the presence of ethyl lactate. All these compounds were linked to the final step in olive fermentation corresponding to the presence of inoculated LAB starter strains (T90) (Figures 5, 6; Supplementary Tables 1–4). All these compounds can be correlated to the metabolic activities of inoculated yeast starter strains.


New process for production of fermented black table olives using selected autochthonous microbial resources.

Tufariello M, Durante M, Ramires FA, Grieco F, Tommasi L, Perbellini E, Falco V, Tasioula-Margari M, Logrieco AF, Mita G, Bleve G - Front Microbiol (2015)

PCA of volatile compounds associated with (A) Leccino and (B) Cellina di Nardò starter-driven fermented table olives. PCA variables were the data obtained from the analysis of concentration and presence of volatile compounds at three different fermentation times. The figure displays the sample scores and variable loadings in the planes formed by PC1–PC2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585182&req=5

Figure 5: PCA of volatile compounds associated with (A) Leccino and (B) Cellina di Nardò starter-driven fermented table olives. PCA variables were the data obtained from the analysis of concentration and presence of volatile compounds at three different fermentation times. The figure displays the sample scores and variable loadings in the planes formed by PC1–PC2.
Mentions: Chemical data were correlated with the activities of mixed starter microorganisms by a PCA analysis was carried out on the global SPME/GC-MS data matrix of each olive sample. The mean values of each volatile compound (variables) obtained at 30-60-90 days of fermentation was analyzed and plotted. Bi-plots displaying PC1 vs. PC2 are illustrated in Figures 5, 6, which show the projection of the variables on the plane defined by the first and second principal components. The two planes made using the first two PCs showed clustering of the molecules into three groups. In all the four starter-driven fermentations, one group, consisting of aldehydes (hexanal in all the four cultivars; 2 methyl butanal, 3 methyl butanal in Leccino, Cellina di Nardò and Kalamàta; 2 methyl propanal in Leccino and Kalamàta; nonanal in Cellina di Nardò and Conservolea), were closely associated to the first fermentation stage (T30) (Figures 5, 6; Supplementary Tables 1–4). The second group consisted of higher alcohols (2-methyl-1-propanol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-methyl-1-butanol in all the four fermentations; hexanol was present in Cellina di Nardò, Kalamàta and Conservolea; 3-methyl-1-butanol was present in Leccino, Kalamàta and Conservolea; propanol and heptanol were characteristics of Leccino), styrene and terpenes (3,7 dimethyl 1,3,7, octatriene in Cellina di Nardò, Kalamàta and Conservolea; limonene in Leccino; farnesene in Kalamàta and Conservolea; copaene in Conservolea; 2,6 dimethyl 2,4,6 octatriene and 3,7 dimethyl 1,6 octadien 3 ol in Kalamàta) associated in all fermentations with the middle stage of fermentation (T60) (Figures 5, 6; Supplementary Tables 1–4). third group contained acetate esters (isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate) and esters (ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate) in all the four fermentations. In addition, Greek cultivars were also characterized by the presence of ethyl lactate. All these compounds were linked to the final step in olive fermentation corresponding to the presence of inoculated LAB starter strains (T90) (Figures 5, 6; Supplementary Tables 1–4). All these compounds can be correlated to the metabolic activities of inoculated yeast starter strains.

Bottom Line: All starters formulation were able to dominate fermentation process.A significant decrease of fermentation time (from 8 to 12 months to a maximum of 3 months) and an significant improvement in organoleptic characteristics of the final product were obtained.This study, for the first time, describes the employment of selected autochthonous microbial resources optimized to mimic the microbial evolution already recorded during spontaneous fermentations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Unità Operativa di Lecce Lecce, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Table olives represent one important fermented product in Europe and, in the world, their demand is constantly increasing. At the present time, no systems are available to control black table olives spontaneous fermentation by the Greek method. During this study, a new protocol for the production of black table olives belonging to two Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and two Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars has been developed: for each table olive cultivar, starter-driven fermentations were performed inoculating, firstly, one selected autochthonous yeast starter and, subsequently, one selected autochthonous LAB starter. All starters formulation were able to dominate fermentation process. The olive fermentation was monitored using specific chemical descriptors able to identify a first stage (30 days) mainly characterized by aldehydes; a second period (60 days) mainly characterized by higher alcohols, styrene and terpenes; a third fermentation stage represented by acetate esters, esters and acids. A significant decrease of fermentation time (from 8 to 12 months to a maximum of 3 months) and an significant improvement in organoleptic characteristics of the final product were obtained. This study, for the first time, describes the employment of selected autochthonous microbial resources optimized to mimic the microbial evolution already recorded during spontaneous fermentations.

No MeSH data available.