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Mining the phytomicrobiome to understand how bacterial coinoculations enhance plant growth.

Maymon M, Martínez-Hidalgo P, Tran SS, Ice T, Craemer K, Anbarchian T, Sung T, Hwang LH, Chou M, Fujishige NA, Villella W, Ventosa J, Sikorski J, Sanders ER, Faull KF, Hirsch AM - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: In previous work, we showed that coinoculating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53 and Bacillus simplex 30N-5 onto Pisum sativum L. roots resulted in better nodulation and increased plant growth.The exact mechanisms whereby coinoculation results in increased plant growth are incompletely understood, but the synthesis of phytohormones and siderophores, the improved solubilization of inorganic nutrients, and the production of antimicrobial compounds are likely possibilities.Because B. simplex 30N-5 is not widely recognized as a Plant Growth Promoting Bacterial (PGPB) species, after sequencing its genome, we searched for genes proposed to promote plant growth, and then compared these sequences with those from several well studied PGPB species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In previous work, we showed that coinoculating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53 and Bacillus simplex 30N-5 onto Pisum sativum L. roots resulted in better nodulation and increased plant growth. We now expand this research to include another alpha-rhizobial species as well as a beta-rhizobium, Burkholderia tuberum STM678. We first determined whether the rhizobia were compatible with B. simplex 30N-5 by cross-streaking experiments, and then Medicago truncatula and Melilotus alba were coinoculated with B. simplex 30N-5 and Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) meliloti to determine the effects on plant growth. Similarly, B. simplex 30N-5 and Bu. tuberum STM678 were coinoculated onto Macroptilium atropurpureum. The exact mechanisms whereby coinoculation results in increased plant growth are incompletely understood, but the synthesis of phytohormones and siderophores, the improved solubilization of inorganic nutrients, and the production of antimicrobial compounds are likely possibilities. Because B. simplex 30N-5 is not widely recognized as a Plant Growth Promoting Bacterial (PGPB) species, after sequencing its genome, we searched for genes proposed to promote plant growth, and then compared these sequences with those from several well studied PGPB species. In addition to genes involved in phytohormone synthesis, we detected genes important for the production of volatiles, polyamines, and antimicrobial peptides as well as genes for such plant growth-promoting traits as phosphate solubilization and siderophore production. Experimental evidence is presented to show that some of these traits, such as polyamine synthesis, are functional in B. simplex 30N-5, whereas others, e.g., auxin production, are not.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogenetic tree. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on concatenated gene sequences of five housekeeping genes (atpD, urvA, rpoB, lepA, and recA). Paenibacillus pini JCM 16418 was used as the outgroup. Numbers at branch points indicate bootstrap values (based on 1000 replicates); only those above 50% are indicated. Bar, 0.05 substitutions per nucleotide position.
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Figure 2: Phylogenetic tree. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on concatenated gene sequences of five housekeeping genes (atpD, urvA, rpoB, lepA, and recA). Paenibacillus pini JCM 16418 was used as the outgroup. Numbers at branch points indicate bootstrap values (based on 1000 replicates); only those above 50% are indicated. Bar, 0.05 substitutions per nucleotide position.

Mentions: A concatenated gene Maximum Likelihood phylogeny of the selected strains is shown in Figure 2. The housekeeping genes used for the tree are representative of the differences between the genomes of the species tested, as the most closely related species to B. simplex are also those with most similarities found in the PGPB genes studied (see colors in Figure 1). Although the topology within the clade was supported by high bootstrap values, the two subclades in the top part of Figure 2 were supported by a low bootstrap value (52%). One subclade contained B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42, B. subtilis GB03, B. subtilis subtilis 168, B. licheniformis DSM13 Goettingen (ATCC 14580), and B. pumilus S-1, whereas the second subclade included the two B. simplex strains, and B. firmus DS1 and B. kribbensis DSM 17871. In this tree, B. subtilis GB03 and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 clustered together. A not-as-strongly supported branch of the top clade (54% bootstrap support) included B. megaterium DSM 319. The clade (bottom part of Figure 2) brought together with strong support, B. panaciterrae DSM 19096, B. cereus JM-Mgvxx-63, and B. thuringiensis sv. israelensis. P. pini JCM 16418 was the outgroup.


Mining the phytomicrobiome to understand how bacterial coinoculations enhance plant growth.

Maymon M, Martínez-Hidalgo P, Tran SS, Ice T, Craemer K, Anbarchian T, Sung T, Hwang LH, Chou M, Fujishige NA, Villella W, Ventosa J, Sikorski J, Sanders ER, Faull KF, Hirsch AM - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Phylogenetic tree. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on concatenated gene sequences of five housekeeping genes (atpD, urvA, rpoB, lepA, and recA). Paenibacillus pini JCM 16418 was used as the outgroup. Numbers at branch points indicate bootstrap values (based on 1000 replicates); only those above 50% are indicated. Bar, 0.05 substitutions per nucleotide position.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585168&req=5

Figure 2: Phylogenetic tree. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on concatenated gene sequences of five housekeeping genes (atpD, urvA, rpoB, lepA, and recA). Paenibacillus pini JCM 16418 was used as the outgroup. Numbers at branch points indicate bootstrap values (based on 1000 replicates); only those above 50% are indicated. Bar, 0.05 substitutions per nucleotide position.
Mentions: A concatenated gene Maximum Likelihood phylogeny of the selected strains is shown in Figure 2. The housekeeping genes used for the tree are representative of the differences between the genomes of the species tested, as the most closely related species to B. simplex are also those with most similarities found in the PGPB genes studied (see colors in Figure 1). Although the topology within the clade was supported by high bootstrap values, the two subclades in the top part of Figure 2 were supported by a low bootstrap value (52%). One subclade contained B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42, B. subtilis GB03, B. subtilis subtilis 168, B. licheniformis DSM13 Goettingen (ATCC 14580), and B. pumilus S-1, whereas the second subclade included the two B. simplex strains, and B. firmus DS1 and B. kribbensis DSM 17871. In this tree, B. subtilis GB03 and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 clustered together. A not-as-strongly supported branch of the top clade (54% bootstrap support) included B. megaterium DSM 319. The clade (bottom part of Figure 2) brought together with strong support, B. panaciterrae DSM 19096, B. cereus JM-Mgvxx-63, and B. thuringiensis sv. israelensis. P. pini JCM 16418 was the outgroup.

Bottom Line: In previous work, we showed that coinoculating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53 and Bacillus simplex 30N-5 onto Pisum sativum L. roots resulted in better nodulation and increased plant growth.The exact mechanisms whereby coinoculation results in increased plant growth are incompletely understood, but the synthesis of phytohormones and siderophores, the improved solubilization of inorganic nutrients, and the production of antimicrobial compounds are likely possibilities.Because B. simplex 30N-5 is not widely recognized as a Plant Growth Promoting Bacterial (PGPB) species, after sequencing its genome, we searched for genes proposed to promote plant growth, and then compared these sequences with those from several well studied PGPB species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In previous work, we showed that coinoculating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53 and Bacillus simplex 30N-5 onto Pisum sativum L. roots resulted in better nodulation and increased plant growth. We now expand this research to include another alpha-rhizobial species as well as a beta-rhizobium, Burkholderia tuberum STM678. We first determined whether the rhizobia were compatible with B. simplex 30N-5 by cross-streaking experiments, and then Medicago truncatula and Melilotus alba were coinoculated with B. simplex 30N-5 and Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) meliloti to determine the effects on plant growth. Similarly, B. simplex 30N-5 and Bu. tuberum STM678 were coinoculated onto Macroptilium atropurpureum. The exact mechanisms whereby coinoculation results in increased plant growth are incompletely understood, but the synthesis of phytohormones and siderophores, the improved solubilization of inorganic nutrients, and the production of antimicrobial compounds are likely possibilities. Because B. simplex 30N-5 is not widely recognized as a Plant Growth Promoting Bacterial (PGPB) species, after sequencing its genome, we searched for genes proposed to promote plant growth, and then compared these sequences with those from several well studied PGPB species. In addition to genes involved in phytohormone synthesis, we detected genes important for the production of volatiles, polyamines, and antimicrobial peptides as well as genes for such plant growth-promoting traits as phosphate solubilization and siderophore production. Experimental evidence is presented to show that some of these traits, such as polyamine synthesis, are functional in B. simplex 30N-5, whereas others, e.g., auxin production, are not.

No MeSH data available.