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ROS mediated MAPK signaling in abiotic and biotic stress- striking similarities and differences.

Jalmi SK, Sinha AK - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: ROS activates a similar MAPK in different environmental stimuli, showing different downstream targets with different and specific responses.In animals and yeast, the mechanism behind the specific activation of MAPK by different concentration and species of ROS is elaborated, but in plants this aspect is still unclear.Attempts have been made to review the involvement of ROS in abiotic stress mediated MAPK signaling and how it differentiates with that of biotic stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Plant Genome Research New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Plants encounter a number of environmental stresses throughout their life cycles, most of which activate mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The MAPKs show crosstalks at several points but the activation and the final response is known to be specific for particular stimuli that in-turn activates specific set of downstream targets. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important and common messenger produced in various environmental stresses and is known to activate many of the MAPKs. ROS activates a similar MAPK in different environmental stimuli, showing different downstream targets with different and specific responses. In animals and yeast, the mechanism behind the specific activation of MAPK by different concentration and species of ROS is elaborated, but in plants this aspect is still unclear. This review mainly focuses on the aspect of specificity of ROS mediated MAPK activation. Attempts have been made to review the involvement of ROS in abiotic stress mediated MAPK signaling and how it differentiates with that of biotic stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regulation of Yeast MAPK Sty1 (orthologs of mammalian p38 and JNK) by different levels of ROS. Sty1 induces the expression of two different transcription factors depending on its activation by different levels of H2O2. Low levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce AP1 (activator protein 1) like transcription factor, whereas higher levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce Atf1 transcription factor. The difference in the activation of Sty1 substrates is due to ROS induced oxidation of different Cysteine residues of Sty1. Oxidation of Cys-153 and Cys-158 by H2O2 is essential for specific induction of Atf1 transcription factor.
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Figure 3: Regulation of Yeast MAPK Sty1 (orthologs of mammalian p38 and JNK) by different levels of ROS. Sty1 induces the expression of two different transcription factors depending on its activation by different levels of H2O2. Low levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce AP1 (activator protein 1) like transcription factor, whereas higher levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce Atf1 transcription factor. The difference in the activation of Sty1 substrates is due to ROS induced oxidation of different Cysteine residues of Sty1. Oxidation of Cys-153 and Cys-158 by H2O2 is essential for specific induction of Atf1 transcription factor.

Mentions: The question behind the specific activation of downstream signaling components by ROS, differentially in abiotic and biotic stresses giving a specific response against a particular stress is still an enigma. The mechanism behind the specificity of MAPK activation by ROS is still elusive in plants, however, their yeast and mammalian counterparts have provided few mechanisms behind this aspect. Yeast MAPK Sty1 (Spc1, Phh1) orthologs of mammalian p38 and JNK families of MAPK play an important role in cell cycle progression and is activated in response to numerous stresses like heat, oxidative, UV, osmotic stress, and nutrient limitation (Degols and Russell, 1997). ATF transcription factor is among key substrate of Sty1 kinase. In oxidative stress conditions Sty1 not only increases phosphorylation of Atf1 but also increases its mRNA stability. Sty1 induces expression of subsets of genes in response to specific stimuli and different sets of genes are being induced by Sty1 in different concentrations of same stimuli. Low levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce AP1 (activator protein 1) like transcription factor, whereas higher levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce Atf1 transcription factor (Chen et al., 2008) (Figure 3). The difference in the downstream activation of Sty1 substrates even in response to same type of stimuli is due to H2O2 induced reversible oxidation of Cysteine residues of Sty1. Day and Veal (2010), suggested that oxidation of two Sty1 MAPKKK Cysteine residues Cys-153 and Cys-158 by H2O2 are essential for specific transcriptional activation of Atf1 transcription factor. These residues are important for hydrogen peroxide-induced gene expression and Atf1 mediated oxidative stress resistance but not for other functions of Sty1 (Day and Veal, 2010) (Figure 3).


ROS mediated MAPK signaling in abiotic and biotic stress- striking similarities and differences.

Jalmi SK, Sinha AK - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Regulation of Yeast MAPK Sty1 (orthologs of mammalian p38 and JNK) by different levels of ROS. Sty1 induces the expression of two different transcription factors depending on its activation by different levels of H2O2. Low levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce AP1 (activator protein 1) like transcription factor, whereas higher levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce Atf1 transcription factor. The difference in the activation of Sty1 substrates is due to ROS induced oxidation of different Cysteine residues of Sty1. Oxidation of Cys-153 and Cys-158 by H2O2 is essential for specific induction of Atf1 transcription factor.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585162&req=5

Figure 3: Regulation of Yeast MAPK Sty1 (orthologs of mammalian p38 and JNK) by different levels of ROS. Sty1 induces the expression of two different transcription factors depending on its activation by different levels of H2O2. Low levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce AP1 (activator protein 1) like transcription factor, whereas higher levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce Atf1 transcription factor. The difference in the activation of Sty1 substrates is due to ROS induced oxidation of different Cysteine residues of Sty1. Oxidation of Cys-153 and Cys-158 by H2O2 is essential for specific induction of Atf1 transcription factor.
Mentions: The question behind the specific activation of downstream signaling components by ROS, differentially in abiotic and biotic stresses giving a specific response against a particular stress is still an enigma. The mechanism behind the specificity of MAPK activation by ROS is still elusive in plants, however, their yeast and mammalian counterparts have provided few mechanisms behind this aspect. Yeast MAPK Sty1 (Spc1, Phh1) orthologs of mammalian p38 and JNK families of MAPK play an important role in cell cycle progression and is activated in response to numerous stresses like heat, oxidative, UV, osmotic stress, and nutrient limitation (Degols and Russell, 1997). ATF transcription factor is among key substrate of Sty1 kinase. In oxidative stress conditions Sty1 not only increases phosphorylation of Atf1 but also increases its mRNA stability. Sty1 induces expression of subsets of genes in response to specific stimuli and different sets of genes are being induced by Sty1 in different concentrations of same stimuli. Low levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce AP1 (activator protein 1) like transcription factor, whereas higher levels of H2O2 activates Sty1 to induce Atf1 transcription factor (Chen et al., 2008) (Figure 3). The difference in the downstream activation of Sty1 substrates even in response to same type of stimuli is due to H2O2 induced reversible oxidation of Cysteine residues of Sty1. Day and Veal (2010), suggested that oxidation of two Sty1 MAPKKK Cysteine residues Cys-153 and Cys-158 by H2O2 are essential for specific transcriptional activation of Atf1 transcription factor. These residues are important for hydrogen peroxide-induced gene expression and Atf1 mediated oxidative stress resistance but not for other functions of Sty1 (Day and Veal, 2010) (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: ROS activates a similar MAPK in different environmental stimuli, showing different downstream targets with different and specific responses.In animals and yeast, the mechanism behind the specific activation of MAPK by different concentration and species of ROS is elaborated, but in plants this aspect is still unclear.Attempts have been made to review the involvement of ROS in abiotic stress mediated MAPK signaling and how it differentiates with that of biotic stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Plant Genome Research New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Plants encounter a number of environmental stresses throughout their life cycles, most of which activate mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The MAPKs show crosstalks at several points but the activation and the final response is known to be specific for particular stimuli that in-turn activates specific set of downstream targets. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important and common messenger produced in various environmental stresses and is known to activate many of the MAPKs. ROS activates a similar MAPK in different environmental stimuli, showing different downstream targets with different and specific responses. In animals and yeast, the mechanism behind the specific activation of MAPK by different concentration and species of ROS is elaborated, but in plants this aspect is still unclear. This review mainly focuses on the aspect of specificity of ROS mediated MAPK activation. Attempts have been made to review the involvement of ROS in abiotic stress mediated MAPK signaling and how it differentiates with that of biotic stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus