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ROS mediated MAPK signaling in abiotic and biotic stress- striking similarities and differences.

Jalmi SK, Sinha AK - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: ROS activates a similar MAPK in different environmental stimuli, showing different downstream targets with different and specific responses.In animals and yeast, the mechanism behind the specific activation of MAPK by different concentration and species of ROS is elaborated, but in plants this aspect is still unclear.Attempts have been made to review the involvement of ROS in abiotic stress mediated MAPK signaling and how it differentiates with that of biotic stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Plant Genome Research New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Plants encounter a number of environmental stresses throughout their life cycles, most of which activate mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The MAPKs show crosstalks at several points but the activation and the final response is known to be specific for particular stimuli that in-turn activates specific set of downstream targets. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important and common messenger produced in various environmental stresses and is known to activate many of the MAPKs. ROS activates a similar MAPK in different environmental stimuli, showing different downstream targets with different and specific responses. In animals and yeast, the mechanism behind the specific activation of MAPK by different concentration and species of ROS is elaborated, but in plants this aspect is still unclear. This review mainly focuses on the aspect of specificity of ROS mediated MAPK activation. Attempts have been made to review the involvement of ROS in abiotic stress mediated MAPK signaling and how it differentiates with that of biotic stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway in biotic and abiotc stresses. ROS is a common messenger produced in response to both the stress response, acting either up- or downstream of MAPK cascade. Despite being a common regulator of MAPKs signaling the response shown by plant is different in both the stresses. Purple and green color represents biotic and abiotc stress, respectively.
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Figure 1: Schematic representation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway in biotic and abiotc stresses. ROS is a common messenger produced in response to both the stress response, acting either up- or downstream of MAPK cascade. Despite being a common regulator of MAPKs signaling the response shown by plant is different in both the stresses. Purple and green color represents biotic and abiotc stress, respectively.

Mentions: Plants show complex signaling network to transduce any external stimuli to the inside of the cell for an appropriate cellular arrangement giving rise to a particular response. The response is such that it helps the plant to cop up with environmental stresses that it experiences throughout its life. To exhibit a particular response, it is important for the plant to perceive the stimulus and transmit it into the nucleus of the plant cell. The perception is specifically done by cell wall receptors which then by several mechanisms activate internal signaling components. One of the most important changes that occur upon perception of external stimuli is change in redox state. Plants come across two types of stresses, abiotic and biotic. Change in redox state is a common outcome of both the stresses. This change in redox state occurs due to the production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in two powerhouses of plants, i.e., chloroplast and mitochondria (Apel and Hirt, 2004; Mittler et al., 2004). ROS are important secondary messengers that are poised at the core of signaling pathway in plants maintaining normal metabolic fluxes and different cellular functions (Figure 1). Besides chloroplast and mitochondria these are mainly produced by cell wall NADPH oxidases, peroxidases, while they are scavenged by numerous scavenging enzymes (Apel and Hirt, 2004; Nurnberger et al., 2004). The level of ROS determines whether it will be defensive or destructive molecule and its level is maintained through coordination between ROS production and turnover (Mittler et al., 2004; Miller et al., 2007). Function of ROS is also governed by its site of production, site of action and duration of action. When environmental stress becomes detrimental to the plant, it activates genetically controlled process called programmed cell death to specifically eliminate damaged tissues. In this process plants produce excess of ROS which helps in destroying stressed and damaged tissue. Signal transdcution pathways regulates the level of ROS production thereby protecting the plants from adverse effect of ROS (Bowler and Fluhr, 2000; Mittler et al., 2004).


ROS mediated MAPK signaling in abiotic and biotic stress- striking similarities and differences.

Jalmi SK, Sinha AK - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Schematic representation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway in biotic and abiotc stresses. ROS is a common messenger produced in response to both the stress response, acting either up- or downstream of MAPK cascade. Despite being a common regulator of MAPKs signaling the response shown by plant is different in both the stresses. Purple and green color represents biotic and abiotc stress, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585162&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic representation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway in biotic and abiotc stresses. ROS is a common messenger produced in response to both the stress response, acting either up- or downstream of MAPK cascade. Despite being a common regulator of MAPKs signaling the response shown by plant is different in both the stresses. Purple and green color represents biotic and abiotc stress, respectively.
Mentions: Plants show complex signaling network to transduce any external stimuli to the inside of the cell for an appropriate cellular arrangement giving rise to a particular response. The response is such that it helps the plant to cop up with environmental stresses that it experiences throughout its life. To exhibit a particular response, it is important for the plant to perceive the stimulus and transmit it into the nucleus of the plant cell. The perception is specifically done by cell wall receptors which then by several mechanisms activate internal signaling components. One of the most important changes that occur upon perception of external stimuli is change in redox state. Plants come across two types of stresses, abiotic and biotic. Change in redox state is a common outcome of both the stresses. This change in redox state occurs due to the production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in two powerhouses of plants, i.e., chloroplast and mitochondria (Apel and Hirt, 2004; Mittler et al., 2004). ROS are important secondary messengers that are poised at the core of signaling pathway in plants maintaining normal metabolic fluxes and different cellular functions (Figure 1). Besides chloroplast and mitochondria these are mainly produced by cell wall NADPH oxidases, peroxidases, while they are scavenged by numerous scavenging enzymes (Apel and Hirt, 2004; Nurnberger et al., 2004). The level of ROS determines whether it will be defensive or destructive molecule and its level is maintained through coordination between ROS production and turnover (Mittler et al., 2004; Miller et al., 2007). Function of ROS is also governed by its site of production, site of action and duration of action. When environmental stress becomes detrimental to the plant, it activates genetically controlled process called programmed cell death to specifically eliminate damaged tissues. In this process plants produce excess of ROS which helps in destroying stressed and damaged tissue. Signal transdcution pathways regulates the level of ROS production thereby protecting the plants from adverse effect of ROS (Bowler and Fluhr, 2000; Mittler et al., 2004).

Bottom Line: ROS activates a similar MAPK in different environmental stimuli, showing different downstream targets with different and specific responses.In animals and yeast, the mechanism behind the specific activation of MAPK by different concentration and species of ROS is elaborated, but in plants this aspect is still unclear.Attempts have been made to review the involvement of ROS in abiotic stress mediated MAPK signaling and how it differentiates with that of biotic stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Plant Genome Research New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Plants encounter a number of environmental stresses throughout their life cycles, most of which activate mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The MAPKs show crosstalks at several points but the activation and the final response is known to be specific for particular stimuli that in-turn activates specific set of downstream targets. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important and common messenger produced in various environmental stresses and is known to activate many of the MAPKs. ROS activates a similar MAPK in different environmental stimuli, showing different downstream targets with different and specific responses. In animals and yeast, the mechanism behind the specific activation of MAPK by different concentration and species of ROS is elaborated, but in plants this aspect is still unclear. This review mainly focuses on the aspect of specificity of ROS mediated MAPK activation. Attempts have been made to review the involvement of ROS in abiotic stress mediated MAPK signaling and how it differentiates with that of biotic stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus