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Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential.

White RA, Power IM, Dipple GM, Southam G, Suttle CA - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome.Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling.Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid, and chlorophyll biosynthesis) and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the microbialites and sediments, respectively. The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome. Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling. Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid, and chlorophyll biosynthesis) and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase). The Clinton Creek microbialite communities had strikingly similar functional potentials to non-lithifying microbial mats from the Canadian High Arctic and Antarctica, but are functionally distinct, from non-lithifying mats or biofilms from Yellowstone. Clinton Creek microbialites also share metabolic genes (R (2) < 0.750) with freshwater microbial mats from Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico, but are more similar to polar Arctic mats (R (2) > 0.900). These metagenomic profiles from an anthropogenic microbialite-forming ecosystem provide context to microbialite formation on a human-relevant timescale.

No MeSH data available.


Clinton Creek sample site and examples of microbialite morphology. (A) Map of northwestern North America illustrating the location of Clinton Creek Yukon, Canada. (B) Photograph of the Clinton Creek open pit pond, the red dot indicating the sampling location. (C) Photograph of the microbialites along the periphery of the open pit pond. Scale bar equals 15 cm. (D) Complete microbialite and cross-section of a microbialite. Scale bar represents 5 cm.
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Figure 1: Clinton Creek sample site and examples of microbialite morphology. (A) Map of northwestern North America illustrating the location of Clinton Creek Yukon, Canada. (B) Photograph of the Clinton Creek open pit pond, the red dot indicating the sampling location. (C) Photograph of the microbialites along the periphery of the open pit pond. Scale bar equals 15 cm. (D) Complete microbialite and cross-section of a microbialite. Scale bar represents 5 cm.

Mentions: In the present study we examined the microbial communities associated with microbialites found in a flooded and abandoned open-pit asbestos mine (64°26′42″N, 140°43′25″W) referred to as Clinton Creek, and located in the subarctic, ~77 km northwest of Dawson City, Yukon, Canada (Figure 1), and which was previously studied to elucidate the geology of asbestos deposits (Htoon, 1979) and for its potential for sequestering carbon dioxide in mine wastes (Wilson et al., 2009). The microbialites at Clinton Creek are unusual in that they have estimated accretion rates of up to ~5 mm per year (Power et al., 2011a), much higher than other modern microbialite-forming systems including Highbourne Cay (~0.33 mm per year) (Planavsky and Ginsburg, 2009), Shark Bay (0.4 mm per year) (Chivas et al., 1990), and Pavilion Lake (0.05 mm per year) (Brady et al., 2009). Consequently, the Clinton Creek microbialites should be excellent models for understanding the biological processes responsible for microbialites formation.


Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential.

White RA, Power IM, Dipple GM, Southam G, Suttle CA - Front Microbiol (2015)

Clinton Creek sample site and examples of microbialite morphology. (A) Map of northwestern North America illustrating the location of Clinton Creek Yukon, Canada. (B) Photograph of the Clinton Creek open pit pond, the red dot indicating the sampling location. (C) Photograph of the microbialites along the periphery of the open pit pond. Scale bar equals 15 cm. (D) Complete microbialite and cross-section of a microbialite. Scale bar represents 5 cm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585152&req=5

Figure 1: Clinton Creek sample site and examples of microbialite morphology. (A) Map of northwestern North America illustrating the location of Clinton Creek Yukon, Canada. (B) Photograph of the Clinton Creek open pit pond, the red dot indicating the sampling location. (C) Photograph of the microbialites along the periphery of the open pit pond. Scale bar equals 15 cm. (D) Complete microbialite and cross-section of a microbialite. Scale bar represents 5 cm.
Mentions: In the present study we examined the microbial communities associated with microbialites found in a flooded and abandoned open-pit asbestos mine (64°26′42″N, 140°43′25″W) referred to as Clinton Creek, and located in the subarctic, ~77 km northwest of Dawson City, Yukon, Canada (Figure 1), and which was previously studied to elucidate the geology of asbestos deposits (Htoon, 1979) and for its potential for sequestering carbon dioxide in mine wastes (Wilson et al., 2009). The microbialites at Clinton Creek are unusual in that they have estimated accretion rates of up to ~5 mm per year (Power et al., 2011a), much higher than other modern microbialite-forming systems including Highbourne Cay (~0.33 mm per year) (Planavsky and Ginsburg, 2009), Shark Bay (0.4 mm per year) (Chivas et al., 1990), and Pavilion Lake (0.05 mm per year) (Brady et al., 2009). Consequently, the Clinton Creek microbialites should be excellent models for understanding the biological processes responsible for microbialites formation.

Bottom Line: The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome.Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling.Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid, and chlorophyll biosynthesis) and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the microbialites and sediments, respectively. The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome. Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling. Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid, and chlorophyll biosynthesis) and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase). The Clinton Creek microbialite communities had strikingly similar functional potentials to non-lithifying microbial mats from the Canadian High Arctic and Antarctica, but are functionally distinct, from non-lithifying mats or biofilms from Yellowstone. Clinton Creek microbialites also share metabolic genes (R (2) < 0.750) with freshwater microbial mats from Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico, but are more similar to polar Arctic mats (R (2) > 0.900). These metagenomic profiles from an anthropogenic microbialite-forming ecosystem provide context to microbialite formation on a human-relevant timescale.

No MeSH data available.