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Analysis of the transgenerational iron deficiency stress memory in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

Murgia I, Giacometti S, Balestrazzi A, Paparella S, Pagliano C, Morandini P - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: However, SHR frequency, DNA strand break events, and TFIIS-like gene expression do not increase further when plants are grown for more than one generation under the same stress, and furthermore, they decrease back to control values within two succeeding generations grown under control conditions, regardless of the Fe deficiency stress history of the mother plants.Lastly, plants grown for multiple generations under Fe deficiency produce seeds with greater longevity: however, this trait is not inherited in offspring generations unexposed to stress.These findings suggest the existence of multiple-step control of mechanisms to prevent a genuine and stable transgenerational transmission of Fe deficiency stress memory, with the tightest control on DNA integrity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biosciences, University of Milano Milano, Italy.

ABSTRACT
We investigated the existence of the transgenerational memory of iron (Fe) deficiency stress, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under Fe deficiency/sufficiency, and so were their offspring. The frequency of somatic homologous recombination (SHR) events, of DNA strand breaks as well as the expression of the transcription elongation factor TFIIS-like gene increase when plants are grown under Fe deficiency. However, SHR frequency, DNA strand break events, and TFIIS-like gene expression do not increase further when plants are grown for more than one generation under the same stress, and furthermore, they decrease back to control values within two succeeding generations grown under control conditions, regardless of the Fe deficiency stress history of the mother plants. Seedlings produced from plants grown under Fe deficiency evolve more oxygen than control seedlings, when grown under Fe sufficiency: however, this trait is not associated with any change in the protein profile of the photosynthetic apparatus and is not transmitted to more than one generation. Lastly, plants grown for multiple generations under Fe deficiency produce seeds with greater longevity: however, this trait is not inherited in offspring generations unexposed to stress. These findings suggest the existence of multiple-step control of mechanisms to prevent a genuine and stable transgenerational transmission of Fe deficiency stress memory, with the tightest control on DNA integrity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

O2 evolution and protein profile of photosynthetic apparatus in A. thaliana seedlings with generational exposure to Fe deficiency. (A) SHR-trap 1445 c0, pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2, pH 7.7 s1 c2 seedlings were grown for 11 days in control AIS medium and net O2 evolution (expressed as μmol O2 evolved min-1 mg chlorophyll-1) was measured under illumination at either 100 or 800 μE m-2 s-1. Values are mean ± SE of three biological replicas, each consisting of at least 15 seedlings. Letters represent statistical differences, according to Student’s t-test, with p < 0.05. (B) Western blot analysis with antibodies against PsaA, CP43, PsbO, D1, LHCII, and PsbE of thylakoid membranes purified from 11 days-old SHR-trap 1445 c0 seedlings germinated in -Fe AIS medium or from 11 days-old SHR-trap 1445 c0, pH 7.7 s1, pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2, pH 7.7 s1 c2 seedlings germinated in control (+Fe) AIS medium. Samples corresponding to 1 μg chlorophyll were loaded on each lane.
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Figure 6: O2 evolution and protein profile of photosynthetic apparatus in A. thaliana seedlings with generational exposure to Fe deficiency. (A) SHR-trap 1445 c0, pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2, pH 7.7 s1 c2 seedlings were grown for 11 days in control AIS medium and net O2 evolution (expressed as μmol O2 evolved min-1 mg chlorophyll-1) was measured under illumination at either 100 or 800 μE m-2 s-1. Values are mean ± SE of three biological replicas, each consisting of at least 15 seedlings. Letters represent statistical differences, according to Student’s t-test, with p < 0.05. (B) Western blot analysis with antibodies against PsaA, CP43, PsbO, D1, LHCII, and PsbE of thylakoid membranes purified from 11 days-old SHR-trap 1445 c0 seedlings germinated in -Fe AIS medium or from 11 days-old SHR-trap 1445 c0, pH 7.7 s1, pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2, pH 7.7 s1 c2 seedlings germinated in control (+Fe) AIS medium. Samples corresponding to 1 μg chlorophyll were loaded on each lane.

Mentions: O2 evolution was higher in pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2 SHR-trap line seedlings than in control c0, when both were grown in +Fe, thus suggesting that the photosynthetic apparatus is more efficient in seedlings whose parental plants experienced Fe deficiency (Figure 6A), in agreement with what was observed for chlorophyll content. Interestingly, O2 evolution values were not significantly higher in pH 7.7 s1 c2 than in control c0 (Figure 6A), indicating a loss of this trait in the offspring unexposed to stress. When seedlings are illuminated with light intensities well above growth light, i.e., at 800 μE m-2 s-1 (Figure 6A), the higher O2 evolution in pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2 is no longer statistically significant (Figure 6A).


Analysis of the transgenerational iron deficiency stress memory in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

Murgia I, Giacometti S, Balestrazzi A, Paparella S, Pagliano C, Morandini P - Front Plant Sci (2015)

O2 evolution and protein profile of photosynthetic apparatus in A. thaliana seedlings with generational exposure to Fe deficiency. (A) SHR-trap 1445 c0, pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2, pH 7.7 s1 c2 seedlings were grown for 11 days in control AIS medium and net O2 evolution (expressed as μmol O2 evolved min-1 mg chlorophyll-1) was measured under illumination at either 100 or 800 μE m-2 s-1. Values are mean ± SE of three biological replicas, each consisting of at least 15 seedlings. Letters represent statistical differences, according to Student’s t-test, with p < 0.05. (B) Western blot analysis with antibodies against PsaA, CP43, PsbO, D1, LHCII, and PsbE of thylakoid membranes purified from 11 days-old SHR-trap 1445 c0 seedlings germinated in -Fe AIS medium or from 11 days-old SHR-trap 1445 c0, pH 7.7 s1, pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2, pH 7.7 s1 c2 seedlings germinated in control (+Fe) AIS medium. Samples corresponding to 1 μg chlorophyll were loaded on each lane.
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Figure 6: O2 evolution and protein profile of photosynthetic apparatus in A. thaliana seedlings with generational exposure to Fe deficiency. (A) SHR-trap 1445 c0, pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2, pH 7.7 s1 c2 seedlings were grown for 11 days in control AIS medium and net O2 evolution (expressed as μmol O2 evolved min-1 mg chlorophyll-1) was measured under illumination at either 100 or 800 μE m-2 s-1. Values are mean ± SE of three biological replicas, each consisting of at least 15 seedlings. Letters represent statistical differences, according to Student’s t-test, with p < 0.05. (B) Western blot analysis with antibodies against PsaA, CP43, PsbO, D1, LHCII, and PsbE of thylakoid membranes purified from 11 days-old SHR-trap 1445 c0 seedlings germinated in -Fe AIS medium or from 11 days-old SHR-trap 1445 c0, pH 7.7 s1, pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2, pH 7.7 s1 c2 seedlings germinated in control (+Fe) AIS medium. Samples corresponding to 1 μg chlorophyll were loaded on each lane.
Mentions: O2 evolution was higher in pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2 SHR-trap line seedlings than in control c0, when both were grown in +Fe, thus suggesting that the photosynthetic apparatus is more efficient in seedlings whose parental plants experienced Fe deficiency (Figure 6A), in agreement with what was observed for chlorophyll content. Interestingly, O2 evolution values were not significantly higher in pH 7.7 s1 c2 than in control c0 (Figure 6A), indicating a loss of this trait in the offspring unexposed to stress. When seedlings are illuminated with light intensities well above growth light, i.e., at 800 μE m-2 s-1 (Figure 6A), the higher O2 evolution in pH 7.7 s1 pH 7.7 s2 is no longer statistically significant (Figure 6A).

Bottom Line: However, SHR frequency, DNA strand break events, and TFIIS-like gene expression do not increase further when plants are grown for more than one generation under the same stress, and furthermore, they decrease back to control values within two succeeding generations grown under control conditions, regardless of the Fe deficiency stress history of the mother plants.Lastly, plants grown for multiple generations under Fe deficiency produce seeds with greater longevity: however, this trait is not inherited in offspring generations unexposed to stress.These findings suggest the existence of multiple-step control of mechanisms to prevent a genuine and stable transgenerational transmission of Fe deficiency stress memory, with the tightest control on DNA integrity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biosciences, University of Milano Milano, Italy.

ABSTRACT
We investigated the existence of the transgenerational memory of iron (Fe) deficiency stress, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under Fe deficiency/sufficiency, and so were their offspring. The frequency of somatic homologous recombination (SHR) events, of DNA strand breaks as well as the expression of the transcription elongation factor TFIIS-like gene increase when plants are grown under Fe deficiency. However, SHR frequency, DNA strand break events, and TFIIS-like gene expression do not increase further when plants are grown for more than one generation under the same stress, and furthermore, they decrease back to control values within two succeeding generations grown under control conditions, regardless of the Fe deficiency stress history of the mother plants. Seedlings produced from plants grown under Fe deficiency evolve more oxygen than control seedlings, when grown under Fe sufficiency: however, this trait is not associated with any change in the protein profile of the photosynthetic apparatus and is not transmitted to more than one generation. Lastly, plants grown for multiple generations under Fe deficiency produce seeds with greater longevity: however, this trait is not inherited in offspring generations unexposed to stress. These findings suggest the existence of multiple-step control of mechanisms to prevent a genuine and stable transgenerational transmission of Fe deficiency stress memory, with the tightest control on DNA integrity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus