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Genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase genes in Capsicum annuum.

Liu Z, Shi L, Liu Y, Tang Q, Shen L, Yang S, Cai J, Yu H, Wang R, Wen J, Lin Y, Hu J, Liu C, Zhang Y, Mou S, He S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: However, significant divergences were also found.Notably, five members of the pepper MAPKK family were much less conserved than those found in Arabidopsis, and 9 Arabidopsis MAPKs did not have orthologs in pepper.These results will facilitate future functional characterization of MAPK cascades in pepper.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Education Minster Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China ; College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
The tripartite mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have been implicated in plant growth, development, and environment adaptation, but a comprehensive understanding of MAPK signaling at genome-wide level is limited in Capsicum annuum. Herein, genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAPKK) were performed in pepper. A total of 19 pepper MAPK (CaMAPKs) genes and five MAPKK (CaMAPKKs) genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CaMAPKs and CaMAPKKs could be classified into four groups and each group contains similar exon-intron structures. However, significant divergences were also found. Notably, five members of the pepper MAPKK family were much less conserved than those found in Arabidopsis, and 9 Arabidopsis MAPKs did not have orthologs in pepper. Additionally, 7 MAPKs in Arabidopsis had either two or three orthologs in the pepper genome, and six pepper MAPKs and one MAPKK differing in sequence were found in three pepper varieties. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the majority of MAPK and MAPKK genes were ubiquitously expressed and transcriptionally modified in pepper leaves after treatments with heat, salt, and Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation as well as exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon, and abscisic acid. The MAPKK-MAPK interactome was tested by yeast two-hybrid assay, the results showed that one MAPKK might interact with multiple MAPKs, one MAPK might also interact with more than one MAPKKs, constituting MAPK signaling networks which may collaborate in transmitting upstream signals into appropriate downstream cellular responses and processes. These results will facilitate future functional characterization of MAPK cascades in pepper.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression levels of MAPKs and MAPKKs in different tissues in CM334 pepper plants (leave, stem, and root). The expression profiles of (A) MAPKs and (B) MAPKKs in different tissues of pepper plants. The pepper plant RNA-seq data of the two gene families were obtained from a previous study.
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Figure 8: Expression levels of MAPKs and MAPKKs in different tissues in CM334 pepper plants (leave, stem, and root). The expression profiles of (A) MAPKs and (B) MAPKKs in different tissues of pepper plants. The pepper plant RNA-seq data of the two gene families were obtained from a previous study.

Mentions: The possible involvement of the MAPK modules in plant growth and development may be reflected in their expression patterns in different organs in pepper plants. To address this, the transcriptional expression profiles of the MAPKs and MAPKKs in different organs were analyzed to confirm their involvement in pepper development and growth using the published RNA-seq data of 6-week-old seedlings of a pepper variety (CM334), which were grown in a greenhouse on a 16-h light/8-h dark cycle (27°C/19°C). The majority of MAPK and MAPKK members expressed constitutively in leaves, roots, and stems (Figure 8). In leaves, the transcript level of CaMPK1 was the highest, followed by CaMPK19-2 and CaMPK6-2. In contrast, in roots, the transcript level of CaMPK19-2 was among the highest, followed by CaMPK4-1 and CaMPK20-1. In stems, CaMPK19-2 showed the highest transcript level, followed by CaMPK1 and CaMPK6-2. Among the five MAPKK genes, CaMKK5 exhibited the highest transcript levels in leaf and stem, whereas CaMKK9 exhibited the highest transcript level in roots. Taken together, these results indicate that MAPKs and MAPKKs are possibly involved in the growth or development in the tested pepper organs.


Genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase genes in Capsicum annuum.

Liu Z, Shi L, Liu Y, Tang Q, Shen L, Yang S, Cai J, Yu H, Wang R, Wen J, Lin Y, Hu J, Liu C, Zhang Y, Mou S, He S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Expression levels of MAPKs and MAPKKs in different tissues in CM334 pepper plants (leave, stem, and root). The expression profiles of (A) MAPKs and (B) MAPKKs in different tissues of pepper plants. The pepper plant RNA-seq data of the two gene families were obtained from a previous study.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585111&req=5

Figure 8: Expression levels of MAPKs and MAPKKs in different tissues in CM334 pepper plants (leave, stem, and root). The expression profiles of (A) MAPKs and (B) MAPKKs in different tissues of pepper plants. The pepper plant RNA-seq data of the two gene families were obtained from a previous study.
Mentions: The possible involvement of the MAPK modules in plant growth and development may be reflected in their expression patterns in different organs in pepper plants. To address this, the transcriptional expression profiles of the MAPKs and MAPKKs in different organs were analyzed to confirm their involvement in pepper development and growth using the published RNA-seq data of 6-week-old seedlings of a pepper variety (CM334), which were grown in a greenhouse on a 16-h light/8-h dark cycle (27°C/19°C). The majority of MAPK and MAPKK members expressed constitutively in leaves, roots, and stems (Figure 8). In leaves, the transcript level of CaMPK1 was the highest, followed by CaMPK19-2 and CaMPK6-2. In contrast, in roots, the transcript level of CaMPK19-2 was among the highest, followed by CaMPK4-1 and CaMPK20-1. In stems, CaMPK19-2 showed the highest transcript level, followed by CaMPK1 and CaMPK6-2. Among the five MAPKK genes, CaMKK5 exhibited the highest transcript levels in leaf and stem, whereas CaMKK9 exhibited the highest transcript level in roots. Taken together, these results indicate that MAPKs and MAPKKs are possibly involved in the growth or development in the tested pepper organs.

Bottom Line: However, significant divergences were also found.Notably, five members of the pepper MAPKK family were much less conserved than those found in Arabidopsis, and 9 Arabidopsis MAPKs did not have orthologs in pepper.These results will facilitate future functional characterization of MAPK cascades in pepper.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Education Minster Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China ; College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
The tripartite mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have been implicated in plant growth, development, and environment adaptation, but a comprehensive understanding of MAPK signaling at genome-wide level is limited in Capsicum annuum. Herein, genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAPKK) were performed in pepper. A total of 19 pepper MAPK (CaMAPKs) genes and five MAPKK (CaMAPKKs) genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CaMAPKs and CaMAPKKs could be classified into four groups and each group contains similar exon-intron structures. However, significant divergences were also found. Notably, five members of the pepper MAPKK family were much less conserved than those found in Arabidopsis, and 9 Arabidopsis MAPKs did not have orthologs in pepper. Additionally, 7 MAPKs in Arabidopsis had either two or three orthologs in the pepper genome, and six pepper MAPKs and one MAPKK differing in sequence were found in three pepper varieties. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the majority of MAPK and MAPKK genes were ubiquitously expressed and transcriptionally modified in pepper leaves after treatments with heat, salt, and Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation as well as exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon, and abscisic acid. The MAPKK-MAPK interactome was tested by yeast two-hybrid assay, the results showed that one MAPKK might interact with multiple MAPKs, one MAPK might also interact with more than one MAPKKs, constituting MAPK signaling networks which may collaborate in transmitting upstream signals into appropriate downstream cellular responses and processes. These results will facilitate future functional characterization of MAPK cascades in pepper.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus