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Genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase genes in Capsicum annuum.

Liu Z, Shi L, Liu Y, Tang Q, Shen L, Yang S, Cai J, Yu H, Wang R, Wen J, Lin Y, Hu J, Liu C, Zhang Y, Mou S, He S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: However, significant divergences were also found.Notably, five members of the pepper MAPKK family were much less conserved than those found in Arabidopsis, and 9 Arabidopsis MAPKs did not have orthologs in pepper.These results will facilitate future functional characterization of MAPK cascades in pepper.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Education Minster Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China ; College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
The tripartite mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have been implicated in plant growth, development, and environment adaptation, but a comprehensive understanding of MAPK signaling at genome-wide level is limited in Capsicum annuum. Herein, genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAPKK) were performed in pepper. A total of 19 pepper MAPK (CaMAPKs) genes and five MAPKK (CaMAPKKs) genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CaMAPKs and CaMAPKKs could be classified into four groups and each group contains similar exon-intron structures. However, significant divergences were also found. Notably, five members of the pepper MAPKK family were much less conserved than those found in Arabidopsis, and 9 Arabidopsis MAPKs did not have orthologs in pepper. Additionally, 7 MAPKs in Arabidopsis had either two or three orthologs in the pepper genome, and six pepper MAPKs and one MAPKK differing in sequence were found in three pepper varieties. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the majority of MAPK and MAPKK genes were ubiquitously expressed and transcriptionally modified in pepper leaves after treatments with heat, salt, and Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation as well as exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon, and abscisic acid. The MAPKK-MAPK interactome was tested by yeast two-hybrid assay, the results showed that one MAPKK might interact with multiple MAPKs, one MAPK might also interact with more than one MAPKKs, constituting MAPK signaling networks which may collaborate in transmitting upstream signals into appropriate downstream cellular responses and processes. These results will facilitate future functional characterization of MAPK cascades in pepper.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Positions of MAPK and MAPKK gene family members on pepper chromosomes. The chromosome number is indicated at the top of each chromosome representation. Paralogs are indicated by green line. Scale represents a 50 Mb chromosomal distance. The paired MAPK genes are marked with a broken line.
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Figure 5: Positions of MAPK and MAPKK gene family members on pepper chromosomes. The chromosome number is indicated at the top of each chromosome representation. Paralogs are indicated by green line. Scale represents a 50 Mb chromosomal distance. The paired MAPK genes are marked with a broken line.

Mentions: The chromosomal locations of pepper MAPK and MAPKK genes were determined using BLASTN analysis of pepper chromosomes. The 19 CaMAPK genes were dispersed throughout 11 of the 12 chromosomes (Figure 5). Chromosomes 7 and 11 each contain 3 MAPK family genes, while chromosomes 1, 5, 6, and 8 each contain two MAPKs. Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 10, and 12 each contain one MAPK. Among these MAPKs, two pairs of paralogous genes (CaMPK13-1/CaMPK13-2 and CaMPK20-1/CaMPK20-2) were located together on chromosomes 11 and 7, respectively. Other paralogs (CaMPK4-1/CaMPK4-2/CaMPK4-3, CaMPK6-1/CaMPK6-2, CaMPK17-1/CaMPK17-2, and CaMPK19-1/CaMPK19-2) were located on different chromosomes. Four of the five MAPKK family members, CaMKK3, CaMKK5, CaMKK6, and CaMKK9 were located on chromosome 3, while CaMKK2 was located on chromosome 2 (Figure 5). A similar observation was reported for tomato, where four MAPKKs were present on one chromosome and another MAPKK was located on a different chromosome (Wu et al., 2014).


Genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase genes in Capsicum annuum.

Liu Z, Shi L, Liu Y, Tang Q, Shen L, Yang S, Cai J, Yu H, Wang R, Wen J, Lin Y, Hu J, Liu C, Zhang Y, Mou S, He S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Positions of MAPK and MAPKK gene family members on pepper chromosomes. The chromosome number is indicated at the top of each chromosome representation. Paralogs are indicated by green line. Scale represents a 50 Mb chromosomal distance. The paired MAPK genes are marked with a broken line.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585111&req=5

Figure 5: Positions of MAPK and MAPKK gene family members on pepper chromosomes. The chromosome number is indicated at the top of each chromosome representation. Paralogs are indicated by green line. Scale represents a 50 Mb chromosomal distance. The paired MAPK genes are marked with a broken line.
Mentions: The chromosomal locations of pepper MAPK and MAPKK genes were determined using BLASTN analysis of pepper chromosomes. The 19 CaMAPK genes were dispersed throughout 11 of the 12 chromosomes (Figure 5). Chromosomes 7 and 11 each contain 3 MAPK family genes, while chromosomes 1, 5, 6, and 8 each contain two MAPKs. Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 10, and 12 each contain one MAPK. Among these MAPKs, two pairs of paralogous genes (CaMPK13-1/CaMPK13-2 and CaMPK20-1/CaMPK20-2) were located together on chromosomes 11 and 7, respectively. Other paralogs (CaMPK4-1/CaMPK4-2/CaMPK4-3, CaMPK6-1/CaMPK6-2, CaMPK17-1/CaMPK17-2, and CaMPK19-1/CaMPK19-2) were located on different chromosomes. Four of the five MAPKK family members, CaMKK3, CaMKK5, CaMKK6, and CaMKK9 were located on chromosome 3, while CaMKK2 was located on chromosome 2 (Figure 5). A similar observation was reported for tomato, where four MAPKKs were present on one chromosome and another MAPKK was located on a different chromosome (Wu et al., 2014).

Bottom Line: However, significant divergences were also found.Notably, five members of the pepper MAPKK family were much less conserved than those found in Arabidopsis, and 9 Arabidopsis MAPKs did not have orthologs in pepper.These results will facilitate future functional characterization of MAPK cascades in pepper.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Education Minster Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China ; College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
The tripartite mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have been implicated in plant growth, development, and environment adaptation, but a comprehensive understanding of MAPK signaling at genome-wide level is limited in Capsicum annuum. Herein, genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAPKK) were performed in pepper. A total of 19 pepper MAPK (CaMAPKs) genes and five MAPKK (CaMAPKKs) genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CaMAPKs and CaMAPKKs could be classified into four groups and each group contains similar exon-intron structures. However, significant divergences were also found. Notably, five members of the pepper MAPKK family were much less conserved than those found in Arabidopsis, and 9 Arabidopsis MAPKs did not have orthologs in pepper. Additionally, 7 MAPKs in Arabidopsis had either two or three orthologs in the pepper genome, and six pepper MAPKs and one MAPKK differing in sequence were found in three pepper varieties. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the majority of MAPK and MAPKK genes were ubiquitously expressed and transcriptionally modified in pepper leaves after treatments with heat, salt, and Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation as well as exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon, and abscisic acid. The MAPKK-MAPK interactome was tested by yeast two-hybrid assay, the results showed that one MAPKK might interact with multiple MAPKs, one MAPK might also interact with more than one MAPKKs, constituting MAPK signaling networks which may collaborate in transmitting upstream signals into appropriate downstream cellular responses and processes. These results will facilitate future functional characterization of MAPK cascades in pepper.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus