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Stem cell origin differently affects bone tissue engineering strategies.

Mattioli-Belmonte M, Teti G, Salvatore V, Focaroli S, Orciani M, Dicarlo M, Fini M, Orsini G, Di Primio R, Falconi M - Front Physiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Nevertheless, several factors hamper BM-MSC clinical application and subsequently, new stem cell sources have been investigated for these purposes.The fruitful selection and combination of tissue engineered scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signaling molecules allowed the surgeon to reconstruct the missing natural tissue.We demonstrated that cells are differently committed toward the osteoblastic phenotype and therefore, taking into account their specific features, they could be intriguing cell sources in different stem cell-based bone/periodontal tissue regeneration approaches.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche Ancona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Bone tissue engineering approaches are encouraging for the improvement of conventional bone grafting technique drawbacks. Thanks to their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation ability, stem cells are one of the major actors in tissue engineering approaches, and among these adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold a great promise for regenerative medicine strategies. Bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) are the first- identified and well-recognized stem cell population used in bone tissue engineering. Nevertheless, several factors hamper BM-MSC clinical application and subsequently, new stem cell sources have been investigated for these purposes. The fruitful selection and combination of tissue engineered scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signaling molecules allowed the surgeon to reconstruct the missing natural tissue. On the basis of these considerations, we analyzed the capability of two different scaffolds, planned for osteochondral tissue regeneration, to modulate differentiation of adult stem cells of dissimilar local sources (i.e., periodontal ligament, maxillary periosteum) as well as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), in view of possible craniofacial tissue engineering strategies. We demonstrated that cells are differently committed toward the osteoblastic phenotype and therefore, taking into account their specific features, they could be intriguing cell sources in different stem cell-based bone/periodontal tissue regeneration approaches.

No MeSH data available.


TEM micrographs of (A) ASCs observed after 14 days of cultured on gelatin scaffold (white asterisks) (bar: 2000 nm); (B) components (arrows) of the extracellular matrix were detected in ASCs cultured for 14 days on scaffold (bar: 10 μm); (C) ASCs cultured on gelatin scaffold for 21 days. Cells showed a well preserved nucleus and rough endoplasmic reticulum (bar: 1000 nm); (D) Several fibrillary structures (arrow) resembling collagen fibers were easily observed in the extracellular matrix (bar: 10 μm). The inset shows a detail on collagen fibers (bar: 200 nm).
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Figure 4: TEM micrographs of (A) ASCs observed after 14 days of cultured on gelatin scaffold (white asterisks) (bar: 2000 nm); (B) components (arrows) of the extracellular matrix were detected in ASCs cultured for 14 days on scaffold (bar: 10 μm); (C) ASCs cultured on gelatin scaffold for 21 days. Cells showed a well preserved nucleus and rough endoplasmic reticulum (bar: 1000 nm); (D) Several fibrillary structures (arrow) resembling collagen fibers were easily observed in the extracellular matrix (bar: 10 μm). The inset shows a detail on collagen fibers (bar: 200 nm).

Mentions: TEM images regarding PDL-SCs cultured on gelatin/hydroxyapatite for 14 days demonstrated well-adhered cells on the scaffold surface (Figure 4A). Nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, such as RER, were well-detected (Figure 4A). Small fibrils resembling the early deposition of collagen type I were observed (Figure 4B). After 21 days of scaffold culture PDL-SCs showed a high synthesis of ECM components with ultrastructurally identified collagen type I fibrils (Figures 4C,D) inset.


Stem cell origin differently affects bone tissue engineering strategies.

Mattioli-Belmonte M, Teti G, Salvatore V, Focaroli S, Orciani M, Dicarlo M, Fini M, Orsini G, Di Primio R, Falconi M - Front Physiol (2015)

TEM micrographs of (A) ASCs observed after 14 days of cultured on gelatin scaffold (white asterisks) (bar: 2000 nm); (B) components (arrows) of the extracellular matrix were detected in ASCs cultured for 14 days on scaffold (bar: 10 μm); (C) ASCs cultured on gelatin scaffold for 21 days. Cells showed a well preserved nucleus and rough endoplasmic reticulum (bar: 1000 nm); (D) Several fibrillary structures (arrow) resembling collagen fibers were easily observed in the extracellular matrix (bar: 10 μm). The inset shows a detail on collagen fibers (bar: 200 nm).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585109&req=5

Figure 4: TEM micrographs of (A) ASCs observed after 14 days of cultured on gelatin scaffold (white asterisks) (bar: 2000 nm); (B) components (arrows) of the extracellular matrix were detected in ASCs cultured for 14 days on scaffold (bar: 10 μm); (C) ASCs cultured on gelatin scaffold for 21 days. Cells showed a well preserved nucleus and rough endoplasmic reticulum (bar: 1000 nm); (D) Several fibrillary structures (arrow) resembling collagen fibers were easily observed in the extracellular matrix (bar: 10 μm). The inset shows a detail on collagen fibers (bar: 200 nm).
Mentions: TEM images regarding PDL-SCs cultured on gelatin/hydroxyapatite for 14 days demonstrated well-adhered cells on the scaffold surface (Figure 4A). Nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, such as RER, were well-detected (Figure 4A). Small fibrils resembling the early deposition of collagen type I were observed (Figure 4B). After 21 days of scaffold culture PDL-SCs showed a high synthesis of ECM components with ultrastructurally identified collagen type I fibrils (Figures 4C,D) inset.

Bottom Line: Nevertheless, several factors hamper BM-MSC clinical application and subsequently, new stem cell sources have been investigated for these purposes.The fruitful selection and combination of tissue engineered scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signaling molecules allowed the surgeon to reconstruct the missing natural tissue.We demonstrated that cells are differently committed toward the osteoblastic phenotype and therefore, taking into account their specific features, they could be intriguing cell sources in different stem cell-based bone/periodontal tissue regeneration approaches.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche Ancona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Bone tissue engineering approaches are encouraging for the improvement of conventional bone grafting technique drawbacks. Thanks to their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation ability, stem cells are one of the major actors in tissue engineering approaches, and among these adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold a great promise for regenerative medicine strategies. Bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) are the first- identified and well-recognized stem cell population used in bone tissue engineering. Nevertheless, several factors hamper BM-MSC clinical application and subsequently, new stem cell sources have been investigated for these purposes. The fruitful selection and combination of tissue engineered scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signaling molecules allowed the surgeon to reconstruct the missing natural tissue. On the basis of these considerations, we analyzed the capability of two different scaffolds, planned for osteochondral tissue regeneration, to modulate differentiation of adult stem cells of dissimilar local sources (i.e., periodontal ligament, maxillary periosteum) as well as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), in view of possible craniofacial tissue engineering strategies. We demonstrated that cells are differently committed toward the osteoblastic phenotype and therefore, taking into account their specific features, they could be intriguing cell sources in different stem cell-based bone/periodontal tissue regeneration approaches.

No MeSH data available.