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Attentional bias in competitive situations: winner does not take all.

Sun Z, Bai T, Yu W, Zhou J, Zhang M, Shen M - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: After observing one of these games, participants were asked to judge a stimulus presented on either the winner's or loser's side of a screen.Both experiments yielded the same results, indicating that the onlookers made much quicker judgments on stimuli presented on the loser's side than the winner's side.Our findings provide a new lens through which the influence of competition results on human cognitive processing can be understood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China.

ABSTRACT
Compared to previous studies of competition with participants' direct involvement, the current study for the first time investigated the influence of competitive outcomes on attentional bias from a perspective of an onlooker. Two simple games were employed: the Rock-Paper-Scissors game (Experiment 1) in which the outcome is based on luck, and Arm-wrestling (Experiment 2), in which the outcome is based on the competitors' strength. After observing one of these games, participants were asked to judge a stimulus presented on either the winner's or loser's side of a screen. Both experiments yielded the same results, indicating that the onlookers made much quicker judgments on stimuli presented on the loser's side than the winner's side. This suggests the existence of an attention bias for loser-related information once a competition has ended. Our findings provide a new lens through which the influence of competition results on human cognitive processing can be understood.

No MeSH data available.


Stimulus and procedures in Experiments 1 and 2. (A) Three gestures used in Experiment 1. From top to bottom, the gestures are Rock, Paper, and Scissors. (B) An example of a trial in Experiment 1 with two dots on the loser’s side as the test item. (C) An example of a trial in Experiment 2 with a green bracelet on the loser’s arm as the test item.
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Figure 1: Stimulus and procedures in Experiments 1 and 2. (A) Three gestures used in Experiment 1. From top to bottom, the gestures are Rock, Paper, and Scissors. (B) An example of a trial in Experiment 1 with two dots on the loser’s side as the test item. (C) An example of a trial in Experiment 2 with a green bracelet on the loser’s arm as the test item.

Mentions: Three pictures of gestures were adopted from the RPS game (see Figure 1A). In order to eliminate the influence of luminance difference, the gesture pictures were monochromatized to black (0, 0, 0, RGB). Stimuli were presented on a gray background (80, 80, 80) CRT monitor of a 17-inch computer (100 Hz refresh rate). Each gesture occupied a 3° × 4° rectangular area, centered 5° to the left or right of a central fixation cross. The direction of each gesture horizontally pointed to either left or right in different experimental conditions. Two or three dots were set as the test item.


Attentional bias in competitive situations: winner does not take all.

Sun Z, Bai T, Yu W, Zhou J, Zhang M, Shen M - Front Psychol (2015)

Stimulus and procedures in Experiments 1 and 2. (A) Three gestures used in Experiment 1. From top to bottom, the gestures are Rock, Paper, and Scissors. (B) An example of a trial in Experiment 1 with two dots on the loser’s side as the test item. (C) An example of a trial in Experiment 2 with a green bracelet on the loser’s arm as the test item.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585104&req=5

Figure 1: Stimulus and procedures in Experiments 1 and 2. (A) Three gestures used in Experiment 1. From top to bottom, the gestures are Rock, Paper, and Scissors. (B) An example of a trial in Experiment 1 with two dots on the loser’s side as the test item. (C) An example of a trial in Experiment 2 with a green bracelet on the loser’s arm as the test item.
Mentions: Three pictures of gestures were adopted from the RPS game (see Figure 1A). In order to eliminate the influence of luminance difference, the gesture pictures were monochromatized to black (0, 0, 0, RGB). Stimuli were presented on a gray background (80, 80, 80) CRT monitor of a 17-inch computer (100 Hz refresh rate). Each gesture occupied a 3° × 4° rectangular area, centered 5° to the left or right of a central fixation cross. The direction of each gesture horizontally pointed to either left or right in different experimental conditions. Two or three dots were set as the test item.

Bottom Line: After observing one of these games, participants were asked to judge a stimulus presented on either the winner's or loser's side of a screen.Both experiments yielded the same results, indicating that the onlookers made much quicker judgments on stimuli presented on the loser's side than the winner's side.Our findings provide a new lens through which the influence of competition results on human cognitive processing can be understood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China.

ABSTRACT
Compared to previous studies of competition with participants' direct involvement, the current study for the first time investigated the influence of competitive outcomes on attentional bias from a perspective of an onlooker. Two simple games were employed: the Rock-Paper-Scissors game (Experiment 1) in which the outcome is based on luck, and Arm-wrestling (Experiment 2), in which the outcome is based on the competitors' strength. After observing one of these games, participants were asked to judge a stimulus presented on either the winner's or loser's side of a screen. Both experiments yielded the same results, indicating that the onlookers made much quicker judgments on stimuli presented on the loser's side than the winner's side. This suggests the existence of an attention bias for loser-related information once a competition has ended. Our findings provide a new lens through which the influence of competition results on human cognitive processing can be understood.

No MeSH data available.