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Ongoing burden of disease and mortality from HIV/CMV coinfection in Africa in the antiretroviral therapy era.

Adland E, Klenerman P, Goulder P, Matthews PC - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Disease manifestations may be a result of direct interplay between the two viruses, or may arise as a secondary consequence of immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation.The problem is most relevant when the rates of coinfection are high, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, and in children at risk of acquiring both infections early in life.Understanding the interplay between these viruses and developing strategies to diagnose, treat and prevent CMV should be a priority.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford Oxford, UK.

ABSTRACT
Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a well-recognized pathogen in the context of HIV infection, but since the roll out of ART, clinical and scientific interest in the problem of HIV/CMV coinfection has diminished. However, CMV remains a significant cofactor in HIV disease, with an influence on HIV acquisition, disease progression, morbidity, and mortality. Disease manifestations may be a result of direct interplay between the two viruses, or may arise as a secondary consequence of immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation. The problem is most relevant when the rates of coinfection are high, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, and in children at risk of acquiring both infections early in life. Understanding the interplay between these viruses and developing strategies to diagnose, treat and prevent CMV should be a priority.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Impact of the immune system on CMV. CMV immune control is reliant on both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. We have here summarized the key elements, highlighting the complex interplay of multiple limbs of the immune system in containing CMV infection.
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Figure 2: Impact of the immune system on CMV. CMV immune control is reliant on both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. We have here summarized the key elements, highlighting the complex interplay of multiple limbs of the immune system in containing CMV infection.

Mentions: CMV immune control is multifactorial and there is evidence to suggest that CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, NK cells and antibody-mediated immunity all play a role in containment. We have summarized the key elements in Figure 2, highlighting the complex interplay of multiple limbs of the immune system in containing CMV infection. When any component of this immune control is aberrant, there is an increased risk of disease either due to primary CMV or reactivation of latent CMV, both of which can lead to disease manifestations.


Ongoing burden of disease and mortality from HIV/CMV coinfection in Africa in the antiretroviral therapy era.

Adland E, Klenerman P, Goulder P, Matthews PC - Front Microbiol (2015)

Impact of the immune system on CMV. CMV immune control is reliant on both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. We have here summarized the key elements, highlighting the complex interplay of multiple limbs of the immune system in containing CMV infection.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585099&req=5

Figure 2: Impact of the immune system on CMV. CMV immune control is reliant on both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. We have here summarized the key elements, highlighting the complex interplay of multiple limbs of the immune system in containing CMV infection.
Mentions: CMV immune control is multifactorial and there is evidence to suggest that CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, NK cells and antibody-mediated immunity all play a role in containment. We have summarized the key elements in Figure 2, highlighting the complex interplay of multiple limbs of the immune system in containing CMV infection. When any component of this immune control is aberrant, there is an increased risk of disease either due to primary CMV or reactivation of latent CMV, both of which can lead to disease manifestations.

Bottom Line: Disease manifestations may be a result of direct interplay between the two viruses, or may arise as a secondary consequence of immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation.The problem is most relevant when the rates of coinfection are high, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, and in children at risk of acquiring both infections early in life.Understanding the interplay between these viruses and developing strategies to diagnose, treat and prevent CMV should be a priority.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford Oxford, UK.

ABSTRACT
Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a well-recognized pathogen in the context of HIV infection, but since the roll out of ART, clinical and scientific interest in the problem of HIV/CMV coinfection has diminished. However, CMV remains a significant cofactor in HIV disease, with an influence on HIV acquisition, disease progression, morbidity, and mortality. Disease manifestations may be a result of direct interplay between the two viruses, or may arise as a secondary consequence of immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation. The problem is most relevant when the rates of coinfection are high, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, and in children at risk of acquiring both infections early in life. Understanding the interplay between these viruses and developing strategies to diagnose, treat and prevent CMV should be a priority.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus