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Ongoing burden of disease and mortality from HIV/CMV coinfection in Africa in the antiretroviral therapy era.

Adland E, Klenerman P, Goulder P, Matthews PC - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Disease manifestations may be a result of direct interplay between the two viruses, or may arise as a secondary consequence of immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation.The problem is most relevant when the rates of coinfection are high, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, and in children at risk of acquiring both infections early in life.Understanding the interplay between these viruses and developing strategies to diagnose, treat and prevent CMV should be a priority.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford Oxford, UK.

ABSTRACT
Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a well-recognized pathogen in the context of HIV infection, but since the roll out of ART, clinical and scientific interest in the problem of HIV/CMV coinfection has diminished. However, CMV remains a significant cofactor in HIV disease, with an influence on HIV acquisition, disease progression, morbidity, and mortality. Disease manifestations may be a result of direct interplay between the two viruses, or may arise as a secondary consequence of immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation. The problem is most relevant when the rates of coinfection are high, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, and in children at risk of acquiring both infections early in life. Understanding the interplay between these viruses and developing strategies to diagnose, treat and prevent CMV should be a priority.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Worldwide CMV seroprevalence rates in adults. We have represented studies of adults aged 16–50 years published between 2005 and 2015 from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cambodia, Chile, China, Finland, France, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Panama, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Tanzania, Turkey, UK, USA, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (Chakraborty et al., 2003; Schlesinger et al., 2005; Miles et al., 2007, 2008; van der Sande et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2007; Dar et al., 2008; Alao et al., 2009; Compston et al., 2009; Micol et al., 2009; Pass et al., 2009; Cannon et al., 2010; Chakravarti et al., 2010; Fielding et al., 2011; Brantsæter et al., 2012; Hsiao et al., 2013; Manicklal et al., 2013, 2014; Gumbo et al., 2014; Lanzieri et al., 2014; Mwaanza et al., 2014; Schaftenaar et al., 2014; Lichtner et al., 2015; Tembo et al., 2015; Viljoen et al., 2015).
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Figure 1: Worldwide CMV seroprevalence rates in adults. We have represented studies of adults aged 16–50 years published between 2005 and 2015 from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cambodia, Chile, China, Finland, France, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Panama, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Tanzania, Turkey, UK, USA, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (Chakraborty et al., 2003; Schlesinger et al., 2005; Miles et al., 2007, 2008; van der Sande et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2007; Dar et al., 2008; Alao et al., 2009; Compston et al., 2009; Micol et al., 2009; Pass et al., 2009; Cannon et al., 2010; Chakravarti et al., 2010; Fielding et al., 2011; Brantsæter et al., 2012; Hsiao et al., 2013; Manicklal et al., 2013, 2014; Gumbo et al., 2014; Lanzieri et al., 2014; Mwaanza et al., 2014; Schaftenaar et al., 2014; Lichtner et al., 2015; Tembo et al., 2015; Viljoen et al., 2015).

Mentions: In the USA, Australia and Europe, CMV seroprevalence among adults is variable, estimated at between 36 and 77%; in contrast, CMV is highly endemic in developing countries and in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, with a seropositivity rate that often approaches 100% in adults (Chakraborty et al., 2003; Schlesinger et al., 2005; Miles et al., 2007, 2008; van der Sande et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2007; Dar et al., 2008; Alao et al., 2009; Compston et al., 2009; Micol et al., 2009; Pass et al., 2009; Cannon et al., 2010; Chakravarti et al., 2010; Fielding et al., 2011; Brantsæter et al., 2012; Hsiao et al., 2013; Manicklal et al., 2013, 2014; Gumbo et al., 2014; Lanzieri et al., 2014; Mwaanza et al., 2014; Schaftenaar et al., 2014; Lichtner et al., 2015; Tembo et al., 2015; Viljoen et al., 2015) (Figure 1).


Ongoing burden of disease and mortality from HIV/CMV coinfection in Africa in the antiretroviral therapy era.

Adland E, Klenerman P, Goulder P, Matthews PC - Front Microbiol (2015)

Worldwide CMV seroprevalence rates in adults. We have represented studies of adults aged 16–50 years published between 2005 and 2015 from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cambodia, Chile, China, Finland, France, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Panama, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Tanzania, Turkey, UK, USA, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (Chakraborty et al., 2003; Schlesinger et al., 2005; Miles et al., 2007, 2008; van der Sande et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2007; Dar et al., 2008; Alao et al., 2009; Compston et al., 2009; Micol et al., 2009; Pass et al., 2009; Cannon et al., 2010; Chakravarti et al., 2010; Fielding et al., 2011; Brantsæter et al., 2012; Hsiao et al., 2013; Manicklal et al., 2013, 2014; Gumbo et al., 2014; Lanzieri et al., 2014; Mwaanza et al., 2014; Schaftenaar et al., 2014; Lichtner et al., 2015; Tembo et al., 2015; Viljoen et al., 2015).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585099&req=5

Figure 1: Worldwide CMV seroprevalence rates in adults. We have represented studies of adults aged 16–50 years published between 2005 and 2015 from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cambodia, Chile, China, Finland, France, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Panama, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Tanzania, Turkey, UK, USA, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (Chakraborty et al., 2003; Schlesinger et al., 2005; Miles et al., 2007, 2008; van der Sande et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2007; Dar et al., 2008; Alao et al., 2009; Compston et al., 2009; Micol et al., 2009; Pass et al., 2009; Cannon et al., 2010; Chakravarti et al., 2010; Fielding et al., 2011; Brantsæter et al., 2012; Hsiao et al., 2013; Manicklal et al., 2013, 2014; Gumbo et al., 2014; Lanzieri et al., 2014; Mwaanza et al., 2014; Schaftenaar et al., 2014; Lichtner et al., 2015; Tembo et al., 2015; Viljoen et al., 2015).
Mentions: In the USA, Australia and Europe, CMV seroprevalence among adults is variable, estimated at between 36 and 77%; in contrast, CMV is highly endemic in developing countries and in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, with a seropositivity rate that often approaches 100% in adults (Chakraborty et al., 2003; Schlesinger et al., 2005; Miles et al., 2007, 2008; van der Sande et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2007; Dar et al., 2008; Alao et al., 2009; Compston et al., 2009; Micol et al., 2009; Pass et al., 2009; Cannon et al., 2010; Chakravarti et al., 2010; Fielding et al., 2011; Brantsæter et al., 2012; Hsiao et al., 2013; Manicklal et al., 2013, 2014; Gumbo et al., 2014; Lanzieri et al., 2014; Mwaanza et al., 2014; Schaftenaar et al., 2014; Lichtner et al., 2015; Tembo et al., 2015; Viljoen et al., 2015) (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Disease manifestations may be a result of direct interplay between the two viruses, or may arise as a secondary consequence of immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation.The problem is most relevant when the rates of coinfection are high, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, and in children at risk of acquiring both infections early in life.Understanding the interplay between these viruses and developing strategies to diagnose, treat and prevent CMV should be a priority.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford Oxford, UK.

ABSTRACT
Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a well-recognized pathogen in the context of HIV infection, but since the roll out of ART, clinical and scientific interest in the problem of HIV/CMV coinfection has diminished. However, CMV remains a significant cofactor in HIV disease, with an influence on HIV acquisition, disease progression, morbidity, and mortality. Disease manifestations may be a result of direct interplay between the two viruses, or may arise as a secondary consequence of immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation. The problem is most relevant when the rates of coinfection are high, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, and in children at risk of acquiring both infections early in life. Understanding the interplay between these viruses and developing strategies to diagnose, treat and prevent CMV should be a priority.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus