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Nucleation of Fe-rich phosphates and carbonates on microbial cells and exopolymeric substances.

Sánchez-Román M, Puente-Sánchez F, Parro V, Amils R - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Although phosphate and carbonate are important constituents in ancient and modern environments, it is not yet clear their biogeochemical relationships and their mechanisms of formation.Microbially mediated carbonate formation has been widely studied whereas little is known about the formation of phosphate minerals.Here we report that a new bacterial strain, Tessarococcus lapidicaptus, isolated from the subsurface of Rio Tinto basin (Huelva, SW Spain), is capable of precipitating Fe-rich phosphate and carbonate minerals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Planetology and Habitability, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC) Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Although phosphate and carbonate are important constituents in ancient and modern environments, it is not yet clear their biogeochemical relationships and their mechanisms of formation. Microbially mediated carbonate formation has been widely studied whereas little is known about the formation of phosphate minerals. Here we report that a new bacterial strain, Tessarococcus lapidicaptus, isolated from the subsurface of Rio Tinto basin (Huelva, SW Spain), is capable of precipitating Fe-rich phosphate and carbonate minerals. We observed morphological differences between phosphate and carbonate, which may help us to recognize these minerals in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. Finally, considering the scarcity and the unequal distribution and preservation patterns of phosphate and carbonates, respectively, in the geological record and the biomineralization process that produces those minerals, we propose a hypothesis for the lack of Fe-phosphates in natural environments and ancient rocks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

TEM images of the bioprecipitates formed in T. Lapidicaptus anaerobic cultures. (A) The bioprecipitates are nanoparticles attached to T. lapidicaptus cell and its secreted EPS, respectively. (B) Electron diffraction pattern of the darker areas, more mineralized areas. (C)T. lapidicaptus cells with mineralized cell wall and covered by nanoparticles embeded in EPS. (D) Detail of T. lapidicaptus cell with mineralized cell wall. Note nanoparticles embedded in EPS. (E) Detail of three cells together with mineralized cell wall and EPS. The upper cell covered by nanoparticles embedded in EPS. (F) Elongated nanoparticle, vivianite nanocrystal, embedded in EPS. (G) Electron diffraction pattern of the nanocrystal (F). (H,I) EDX spectra of both dark and lighter mineralized areas (1A) composed of Fe-carbonate and phosphate, respectively. (J) EDX spectrum of nanoparticle (1E) composed of Fe-phosphate (vivianite).
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Figure 2: TEM images of the bioprecipitates formed in T. Lapidicaptus anaerobic cultures. (A) The bioprecipitates are nanoparticles attached to T. lapidicaptus cell and its secreted EPS, respectively. (B) Electron diffraction pattern of the darker areas, more mineralized areas. (C)T. lapidicaptus cells with mineralized cell wall and covered by nanoparticles embeded in EPS. (D) Detail of T. lapidicaptus cell with mineralized cell wall. Note nanoparticles embedded in EPS. (E) Detail of three cells together with mineralized cell wall and EPS. The upper cell covered by nanoparticles embedded in EPS. (F) Elongated nanoparticle, vivianite nanocrystal, embedded in EPS. (G) Electron diffraction pattern of the nanocrystal (F). (H,I) EDX spectra of both dark and lighter mineralized areas (1A) composed of Fe-carbonate and phosphate, respectively. (J) EDX spectrum of nanoparticle (1E) composed of Fe-phosphate (vivianite).

Mentions: TEM and SEM images of the bacterial precipitates show that Fe-phosphate crystals and Fe-carbonate spheroidal nanoparticles (nanoglobules) and in some cases, elongated nanoparticles were attached to the bacterial cells and EPS (Figures 2A–D, 3A,B,D, 4A,B). EDX analyses (Figures 2F–H) confirm the X-ray results, the nanoparticle precipitates are composed of both, vivianite and siderite. Vivianite crystals have a prismatic or tabular habit and form coarse radial-fibrous aggregates like rosettes with a high degree of crystallinity and vitreous luster (Figures 3C,D). These crystals are approximately 10–20 μm in width and 100–300 μm in length. Siderite crystals are aggregates of nanoglobules with a diameter 20–100 nm (Figures 4A,B). These nanoglobules were attached to T. lapidicaptus cells and embedded in a thin organic film (exopolymeric substances or EPS) produced by T. lapidicaptus during its growth (Figures 2A–D, 4A,B). Mineralized bacteria were clearly recognized (Figures 3A, 4A) as well as dividing cells (Figures 2B, 4A); broken cells and mould of degraded cells (Figures 3A, 4B). The process of microspherulites (diameter > 10 μm) formation comprises a sequence of events, starting with the appearance of bacterial nanoglobules (<20 nm) to larger ones (>100 nm), which agglomerate with time resulting in microspherulites (Figures 4C,D). The most important process in the sequence that leads to the formation of spherulites is the accumulation of nanoglubules and mineralized bacterial cells, embedded in EPS matrix, displaying a granulated texture (Figures 4A,B,D).


Nucleation of Fe-rich phosphates and carbonates on microbial cells and exopolymeric substances.

Sánchez-Román M, Puente-Sánchez F, Parro V, Amils R - Front Microbiol (2015)

TEM images of the bioprecipitates formed in T. Lapidicaptus anaerobic cultures. (A) The bioprecipitates are nanoparticles attached to T. lapidicaptus cell and its secreted EPS, respectively. (B) Electron diffraction pattern of the darker areas, more mineralized areas. (C)T. lapidicaptus cells with mineralized cell wall and covered by nanoparticles embeded in EPS. (D) Detail of T. lapidicaptus cell with mineralized cell wall. Note nanoparticles embedded in EPS. (E) Detail of three cells together with mineralized cell wall and EPS. The upper cell covered by nanoparticles embedded in EPS. (F) Elongated nanoparticle, vivianite nanocrystal, embedded in EPS. (G) Electron diffraction pattern of the nanocrystal (F). (H,I) EDX spectra of both dark and lighter mineralized areas (1A) composed of Fe-carbonate and phosphate, respectively. (J) EDX spectrum of nanoparticle (1E) composed of Fe-phosphate (vivianite).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585095&req=5

Figure 2: TEM images of the bioprecipitates formed in T. Lapidicaptus anaerobic cultures. (A) The bioprecipitates are nanoparticles attached to T. lapidicaptus cell and its secreted EPS, respectively. (B) Electron diffraction pattern of the darker areas, more mineralized areas. (C)T. lapidicaptus cells with mineralized cell wall and covered by nanoparticles embeded in EPS. (D) Detail of T. lapidicaptus cell with mineralized cell wall. Note nanoparticles embedded in EPS. (E) Detail of three cells together with mineralized cell wall and EPS. The upper cell covered by nanoparticles embedded in EPS. (F) Elongated nanoparticle, vivianite nanocrystal, embedded in EPS. (G) Electron diffraction pattern of the nanocrystal (F). (H,I) EDX spectra of both dark and lighter mineralized areas (1A) composed of Fe-carbonate and phosphate, respectively. (J) EDX spectrum of nanoparticle (1E) composed of Fe-phosphate (vivianite).
Mentions: TEM and SEM images of the bacterial precipitates show that Fe-phosphate crystals and Fe-carbonate spheroidal nanoparticles (nanoglobules) and in some cases, elongated nanoparticles were attached to the bacterial cells and EPS (Figures 2A–D, 3A,B,D, 4A,B). EDX analyses (Figures 2F–H) confirm the X-ray results, the nanoparticle precipitates are composed of both, vivianite and siderite. Vivianite crystals have a prismatic or tabular habit and form coarse radial-fibrous aggregates like rosettes with a high degree of crystallinity and vitreous luster (Figures 3C,D). These crystals are approximately 10–20 μm in width and 100–300 μm in length. Siderite crystals are aggregates of nanoglobules with a diameter 20–100 nm (Figures 4A,B). These nanoglobules were attached to T. lapidicaptus cells and embedded in a thin organic film (exopolymeric substances or EPS) produced by T. lapidicaptus during its growth (Figures 2A–D, 4A,B). Mineralized bacteria were clearly recognized (Figures 3A, 4A) as well as dividing cells (Figures 2B, 4A); broken cells and mould of degraded cells (Figures 3A, 4B). The process of microspherulites (diameter > 10 μm) formation comprises a sequence of events, starting with the appearance of bacterial nanoglobules (<20 nm) to larger ones (>100 nm), which agglomerate with time resulting in microspherulites (Figures 4C,D). The most important process in the sequence that leads to the formation of spherulites is the accumulation of nanoglubules and mineralized bacterial cells, embedded in EPS matrix, displaying a granulated texture (Figures 4A,B,D).

Bottom Line: Although phosphate and carbonate are important constituents in ancient and modern environments, it is not yet clear their biogeochemical relationships and their mechanisms of formation.Microbially mediated carbonate formation has been widely studied whereas little is known about the formation of phosphate minerals.Here we report that a new bacterial strain, Tessarococcus lapidicaptus, isolated from the subsurface of Rio Tinto basin (Huelva, SW Spain), is capable of precipitating Fe-rich phosphate and carbonate minerals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Planetology and Habitability, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC) Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Although phosphate and carbonate are important constituents in ancient and modern environments, it is not yet clear their biogeochemical relationships and their mechanisms of formation. Microbially mediated carbonate formation has been widely studied whereas little is known about the formation of phosphate minerals. Here we report that a new bacterial strain, Tessarococcus lapidicaptus, isolated from the subsurface of Rio Tinto basin (Huelva, SW Spain), is capable of precipitating Fe-rich phosphate and carbonate minerals. We observed morphological differences between phosphate and carbonate, which may help us to recognize these minerals in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. Finally, considering the scarcity and the unequal distribution and preservation patterns of phosphate and carbonates, respectively, in the geological record and the biomineralization process that produces those minerals, we propose a hypothesis for the lack of Fe-phosphates in natural environments and ancient rocks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus