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The death mechanism of the harmful algal bloom species Alexandrium tamarense induced by algicidal bacterium Deinococcus sp. Y35.

Li Y, Zhu H, Lei X, Zhang H, Cai G, Chen Z, Fu L, Xu H, Zheng T - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause a variety of deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems, especially the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, which poses a serious threat to marine economic and human health based on releasing paralytic shellfish poison into the environment.Photosynthetic pigments including chlorophyll a and carotenoid decreased along with the photosynthetic efficiency being significantly inhibited.More than, the destruction of cell nuclear structure and inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) related gene expression were confirmed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University Xiamen, China ; College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University Xinxiang, China.

ABSTRACT
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause a variety of deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems, especially the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, which poses a serious threat to marine economic and human health based on releasing paralytic shellfish poison into the environment. The algicidal bacterium Deinococcus sp. Y35 which can induce growth inhibition on A. tamarense was used to investigate the functional mechanism. The growth status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, photosynthetic system and the nuclear system of algal cells were determined under algicidal activity. A culture of strain Y35 not only induced overproduction of ROS in algal cells within only 0.5 h of treatment, also decrease the total protein content as well as the response of the antioxidant enzyme. Meanwhile, lipid peroxidation was induced and cell membrane integrity was lost. Photosynthetic pigments including chlorophyll a and carotenoid decreased along with the photosynthetic efficiency being significantly inhibited. At the same time, photosynthesis-related gene expression showed down-regulation. More than, the destruction of cell nuclear structure and inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) related gene expression were confirmed. The potential functional mechanism of the algicidal bacterium on A. tamarense was investigated and provided a novel viewpoint which could be used in HABs control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of the bacterial culture on ROS level (A) and protein contents (B) in A. tamarense. All error bars indicate the SE of the three biological replicates. *Represents a statistically significant difference of p < 0.05 when compared to the control; **represents a statistically significant difference of p < 0.01. Inset represents the green fluorescence of algal cells within ROS between control and treatment groups.
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Figure 2: Effects of the bacterial culture on ROS level (A) and protein contents (B) in A. tamarense. All error bars indicate the SE of the three biological replicates. *Represents a statistically significant difference of p < 0.05 when compared to the control; **represents a statistically significant difference of p < 0.01. Inset represents the green fluorescence of algal cells within ROS between control and treatment groups.

Mentions: ROS levels were induced under the effect of the algicidal bacteria, and were significantly increased (p < 0.01) during the algicidal procedure (Figure 2A). The content of ROS increased after 0.5 h exposure in all the treatment groups, and ROS levels within 0.5 h treatment with concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0% bacterial culture were 3.28, 3.42, 3.36, and 2.92-fold those of the control. However, the ROS contents in all the treatment groups began to decrease after 1 h exposure until 4 h, when the ROS contents in the concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0% rose again, and maintained a high level compared to the control. The protein contents in the 1.0 and 2.0% concentrations decreased greatly (p < 0.01) compared to the control (Figure 2B). The trend observed in treatment time was that the protein contents in both these treatment groups presented low levels compared to the control, and the protein contents of the 48 h treatment groups decreased by 40 and 50% of the control at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0%.


The death mechanism of the harmful algal bloom species Alexandrium tamarense induced by algicidal bacterium Deinococcus sp. Y35.

Li Y, Zhu H, Lei X, Zhang H, Cai G, Chen Z, Fu L, Xu H, Zheng T - Front Microbiol (2015)

Effects of the bacterial culture on ROS level (A) and protein contents (B) in A. tamarense. All error bars indicate the SE of the three biological replicates. *Represents a statistically significant difference of p < 0.05 when compared to the control; **represents a statistically significant difference of p < 0.01. Inset represents the green fluorescence of algal cells within ROS between control and treatment groups.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585090&req=5

Figure 2: Effects of the bacterial culture on ROS level (A) and protein contents (B) in A. tamarense. All error bars indicate the SE of the three biological replicates. *Represents a statistically significant difference of p < 0.05 when compared to the control; **represents a statistically significant difference of p < 0.01. Inset represents the green fluorescence of algal cells within ROS between control and treatment groups.
Mentions: ROS levels were induced under the effect of the algicidal bacteria, and were significantly increased (p < 0.01) during the algicidal procedure (Figure 2A). The content of ROS increased after 0.5 h exposure in all the treatment groups, and ROS levels within 0.5 h treatment with concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0% bacterial culture were 3.28, 3.42, 3.36, and 2.92-fold those of the control. However, the ROS contents in all the treatment groups began to decrease after 1 h exposure until 4 h, when the ROS contents in the concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0% rose again, and maintained a high level compared to the control. The protein contents in the 1.0 and 2.0% concentrations decreased greatly (p < 0.01) compared to the control (Figure 2B). The trend observed in treatment time was that the protein contents in both these treatment groups presented low levels compared to the control, and the protein contents of the 48 h treatment groups decreased by 40 and 50% of the control at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0%.

Bottom Line: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause a variety of deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems, especially the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, which poses a serious threat to marine economic and human health based on releasing paralytic shellfish poison into the environment.Photosynthetic pigments including chlorophyll a and carotenoid decreased along with the photosynthetic efficiency being significantly inhibited.More than, the destruction of cell nuclear structure and inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) related gene expression were confirmed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University Xiamen, China ; College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University Xinxiang, China.

ABSTRACT
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause a variety of deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems, especially the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, which poses a serious threat to marine economic and human health based on releasing paralytic shellfish poison into the environment. The algicidal bacterium Deinococcus sp. Y35 which can induce growth inhibition on A. tamarense was used to investigate the functional mechanism. The growth status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, photosynthetic system and the nuclear system of algal cells were determined under algicidal activity. A culture of strain Y35 not only induced overproduction of ROS in algal cells within only 0.5 h of treatment, also decrease the total protein content as well as the response of the antioxidant enzyme. Meanwhile, lipid peroxidation was induced and cell membrane integrity was lost. Photosynthetic pigments including chlorophyll a and carotenoid decreased along with the photosynthetic efficiency being significantly inhibited. At the same time, photosynthesis-related gene expression showed down-regulation. More than, the destruction of cell nuclear structure and inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) related gene expression were confirmed. The potential functional mechanism of the algicidal bacterium on A. tamarense was investigated and provided a novel viewpoint which could be used in HABs control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus