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Gender differences in experiential and facial reactivity to approval and disapproval during emotional social interactions.

Wiggert N, Wilhelm FH, Derntl B, Blechert J - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: The present study approached these limitations by utilizing a naturalistic stimulus set displaying nine males and nine females (expressers) delivering social evaluative sentences to 32 female and 26 male participants (perceivers).Results indicated that men expressing positive evaluations elicited stronger EMG responses in both perceiver genders.Arousal was rated higher when positive evaluations were expressed by the opposite gender.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Health Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Negative social evaluations represent social threats and elicit negative emotions such as anger or fear. Positive social evaluations, by contrast, may increase self-esteem and generate positive emotions such as happiness and pride. Gender differences are likely to shape both the perception and expression of positive and negative social evaluations. Yet, current knowledge is limited by a reliance on studies that used static images of individual expressers with limited external validity. Furthermore, only few studies considered gender differences on both the expresser and perceiver side. The present study approached these limitations by utilizing a naturalistic stimulus set displaying nine males and nine females (expressers) delivering social evaluative sentences to 32 female and 26 male participants (perceivers). Perceivers watched 30 positive, 30 negative, and 30 neutral messages while facial electromyography (EMG) was continuously recorded and subjective ratings were obtained. Results indicated that men expressing positive evaluations elicited stronger EMG responses in both perceiver genders. Arousal was rated higher when positive evaluations were expressed by the opposite gender. Thus, gender differences need to be more explicitly considered in research of social cognition and affective science using naturalistic social stimuli.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Shows response patterns of female participants for valence and arousal ratings as well as M. corrugator and M. zygomaticus activity as a facial expressive response to emotion-evocative video-clips (negative, neutral, positive). (B) Shows response patterns of male participants for valence and arousal ratings as well as M. corrugator and M. zygomaticus activity. Line bars indicate standard error.
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Figure 1: (A) Shows response patterns of female participants for valence and arousal ratings as well as M. corrugator and M. zygomaticus activity as a facial expressive response to emotion-evocative video-clips (negative, neutral, positive). (B) Shows response patterns of male participants for valence and arousal ratings as well as M. corrugator and M. zygomaticus activity. Line bars indicate standard error.

Mentions: The 2 (Expresser gender: male vs. female) × 3 (Emotion condition: negative, neutral, positive) × 2 (Perceiver gender: male vs. female) repeated measures ANOVA of valence revealed a main effect of Expresser gender, F(1,56) = 4.16, p = 0.046, = 0.07, with male expressers being perceived as more unpleasant than female expressers (MeanDiff = 0.92, p = 0.046, 95% CImale expresser-female expresser [0.017, 1.83]). As expected from previous research with this stimulus set, there was a main effect of Emotion condition, F(2,112) = 351.00, p < 0.001, = 0.86, ε = 0.69. Negative videos were rated as more unpleasant than neutral videos, which in turn were rated as more unpleasant than positive videos (MeanDiffs > 24.80, ps < 0.001, 95% CIneg-neu [25.80, 34.69], 95% CIneu-pos [20.89, 28.72]; Figures 1A,B). However, no main effect of Perceiver gender, F(1,56) = 0.003, p > 0.05 and no interactions of Expresser gender x Emotion condition or Perceiver gender × Emotion condition, Fs < 2.16, ps > 0.121, emerged.


Gender differences in experiential and facial reactivity to approval and disapproval during emotional social interactions.

Wiggert N, Wilhelm FH, Derntl B, Blechert J - Front Psychol (2015)

(A) Shows response patterns of female participants for valence and arousal ratings as well as M. corrugator and M. zygomaticus activity as a facial expressive response to emotion-evocative video-clips (negative, neutral, positive). (B) Shows response patterns of male participants for valence and arousal ratings as well as M. corrugator and M. zygomaticus activity. Line bars indicate standard error.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585028&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Shows response patterns of female participants for valence and arousal ratings as well as M. corrugator and M. zygomaticus activity as a facial expressive response to emotion-evocative video-clips (negative, neutral, positive). (B) Shows response patterns of male participants for valence and arousal ratings as well as M. corrugator and M. zygomaticus activity. Line bars indicate standard error.
Mentions: The 2 (Expresser gender: male vs. female) × 3 (Emotion condition: negative, neutral, positive) × 2 (Perceiver gender: male vs. female) repeated measures ANOVA of valence revealed a main effect of Expresser gender, F(1,56) = 4.16, p = 0.046, = 0.07, with male expressers being perceived as more unpleasant than female expressers (MeanDiff = 0.92, p = 0.046, 95% CImale expresser-female expresser [0.017, 1.83]). As expected from previous research with this stimulus set, there was a main effect of Emotion condition, F(2,112) = 351.00, p < 0.001, = 0.86, ε = 0.69. Negative videos were rated as more unpleasant than neutral videos, which in turn were rated as more unpleasant than positive videos (MeanDiffs > 24.80, ps < 0.001, 95% CIneg-neu [25.80, 34.69], 95% CIneu-pos [20.89, 28.72]; Figures 1A,B). However, no main effect of Perceiver gender, F(1,56) = 0.003, p > 0.05 and no interactions of Expresser gender x Emotion condition or Perceiver gender × Emotion condition, Fs < 2.16, ps > 0.121, emerged.

Bottom Line: The present study approached these limitations by utilizing a naturalistic stimulus set displaying nine males and nine females (expressers) delivering social evaluative sentences to 32 female and 26 male participants (perceivers).Results indicated that men expressing positive evaluations elicited stronger EMG responses in both perceiver genders.Arousal was rated higher when positive evaluations were expressed by the opposite gender.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Health Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Negative social evaluations represent social threats and elicit negative emotions such as anger or fear. Positive social evaluations, by contrast, may increase self-esteem and generate positive emotions such as happiness and pride. Gender differences are likely to shape both the perception and expression of positive and negative social evaluations. Yet, current knowledge is limited by a reliance on studies that used static images of individual expressers with limited external validity. Furthermore, only few studies considered gender differences on both the expresser and perceiver side. The present study approached these limitations by utilizing a naturalistic stimulus set displaying nine males and nine females (expressers) delivering social evaluative sentences to 32 female and 26 male participants (perceivers). Perceivers watched 30 positive, 30 negative, and 30 neutral messages while facial electromyography (EMG) was continuously recorded and subjective ratings were obtained. Results indicated that men expressing positive evaluations elicited stronger EMG responses in both perceiver genders. Arousal was rated higher when positive evaluations were expressed by the opposite gender. Thus, gender differences need to be more explicitly considered in research of social cognition and affective science using naturalistic social stimuli.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus