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Car Transfer and Wheelchair Loading Techniques in Independent Drivers with Paraplegia.

Haubert LL, Mulroy SJ, Hatchett PE, Eberly VJ, Maneekobkunwong S, Gronley JK, Requejo PS - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2015)

Bottom Line: Just over half (52%) of drivers place their right leg only into the vehicle prior to transfer.The majority of participants used both hands (62%) to load their WC frame, and overall, most loaded their frame into the back (62%) vs. the front seat.Those who loaded their WC frame into the back seat had significantly weaker right shoulder internal rotators.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pathokinesiology Laboratory, Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center , Downey, CA , USA.

ABSTRACT
Car transfers and wheelchair (WC) loading are crucial for independent community participation in persons with complete paraplegia from spinal cord injury, but are complex, physically demanding, and known to provoke shoulder pain. This study aimed to describe techniques and factors influencing car transfer and WC loading for individuals with paraplegia driving their own vehicles and using their personal WCs. Sedans were the most common vehicle driven (59%). Just over half (52%) of drivers place their right leg only into the vehicle prior to transfer. Overall, the leading hand was most frequently placed on the driver's seat (66%) prior to transfer and the trailing hand was most often place on the WC seat (48%). Vehicle height influenced leading hand placement but not leg placement such that drivers of higher profile vehicles were more likely to place their hand on the driver's seat than those who drove sedans. Body lift time was negatively correlated with level of injury and age and positively correlated with vehicle height and shoulder abduction strength. Drivers who transferred with their leading hand on the steering wheel had significantly higher levels of shoulder pain than those who placed their hand on the driver's seat or overhead. The majority of participants used both hands (62%) to load their WC frame, and overall, most loaded their frame into the back (62%) vs. the front seat. Sedan drivers were more likely to load their frame into the front seat than drivers of higher profile vehicles (53 vs. 17%). Average time to load the WC frame (10.7 s) was 20% of the total WC loading time and was not related to shoulder strength, frame weight, or demographic characteristics. Those who loaded their WC frame into the back seat had significantly weaker right shoulder internal rotators. Understanding car transfers and WC loading in independent drivers is crucial to prevent shoulder pain and injury and preserve community participation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Car transfer into a mid-height vehicle with right leg inside and left leg outside of the vehicle and leading hand on the driver’s seat. (B) Car transfer into a sedan with both legs in the vehicle and the leading hand on the grab bar. (C) Car transfer into a sedan with both legs outside of the vehicle and the leading hand on the steering wheel.
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Figure 1: (A) Car transfer into a mid-height vehicle with right leg inside and left leg outside of the vehicle and leading hand on the driver’s seat. (B) Car transfer into a sedan with both legs in the vehicle and the leading hand on the grab bar. (C) Car transfer into a sedan with both legs outside of the vehicle and the leading hand on the steering wheel.

Mentions: The majority of participants (15 out of 29) placed their right leg only into the car prior to the body lift phase of the transfer; five placed both legs in the car prior to the transfer, and eight transferred with their legs outside of the car (Figures 1A–C). The right or leading hand was most frequently placed on the driver’s seat (19/29) during the body lift portion of the transfer, while seven transferred with the right hand on the steering wheel and three transferred with the right hand on the overhead door frame or grab bar (Figures 1A–C). The left hand or trailing hand was placed most frequently on the WC seat for the body lift (14/29), while three placed their left hand on the steering wheel of the car, two on the wheel of the WC, three on both the WC seat and wheel, five on the driver’s side door, and two on the overhead door frame.


Car Transfer and Wheelchair Loading Techniques in Independent Drivers with Paraplegia.

Haubert LL, Mulroy SJ, Hatchett PE, Eberly VJ, Maneekobkunwong S, Gronley JK, Requejo PS - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2015)

(A) Car transfer into a mid-height vehicle with right leg inside and left leg outside of the vehicle and leading hand on the driver’s seat. (B) Car transfer into a sedan with both legs in the vehicle and the leading hand on the grab bar. (C) Car transfer into a sedan with both legs outside of the vehicle and the leading hand on the steering wheel.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585017&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Car transfer into a mid-height vehicle with right leg inside and left leg outside of the vehicle and leading hand on the driver’s seat. (B) Car transfer into a sedan with both legs in the vehicle and the leading hand on the grab bar. (C) Car transfer into a sedan with both legs outside of the vehicle and the leading hand on the steering wheel.
Mentions: The majority of participants (15 out of 29) placed their right leg only into the car prior to the body lift phase of the transfer; five placed both legs in the car prior to the transfer, and eight transferred with their legs outside of the car (Figures 1A–C). The right or leading hand was most frequently placed on the driver’s seat (19/29) during the body lift portion of the transfer, while seven transferred with the right hand on the steering wheel and three transferred with the right hand on the overhead door frame or grab bar (Figures 1A–C). The left hand or trailing hand was placed most frequently on the WC seat for the body lift (14/29), while three placed their left hand on the steering wheel of the car, two on the wheel of the WC, three on both the WC seat and wheel, five on the driver’s side door, and two on the overhead door frame.

Bottom Line: Just over half (52%) of drivers place their right leg only into the vehicle prior to transfer.The majority of participants used both hands (62%) to load their WC frame, and overall, most loaded their frame into the back (62%) vs. the front seat.Those who loaded their WC frame into the back seat had significantly weaker right shoulder internal rotators.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pathokinesiology Laboratory, Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center , Downey, CA , USA.

ABSTRACT
Car transfers and wheelchair (WC) loading are crucial for independent community participation in persons with complete paraplegia from spinal cord injury, but are complex, physically demanding, and known to provoke shoulder pain. This study aimed to describe techniques and factors influencing car transfer and WC loading for individuals with paraplegia driving their own vehicles and using their personal WCs. Sedans were the most common vehicle driven (59%). Just over half (52%) of drivers place their right leg only into the vehicle prior to transfer. Overall, the leading hand was most frequently placed on the driver's seat (66%) prior to transfer and the trailing hand was most often place on the WC seat (48%). Vehicle height influenced leading hand placement but not leg placement such that drivers of higher profile vehicles were more likely to place their hand on the driver's seat than those who drove sedans. Body lift time was negatively correlated with level of injury and age and positively correlated with vehicle height and shoulder abduction strength. Drivers who transferred with their leading hand on the steering wheel had significantly higher levels of shoulder pain than those who placed their hand on the driver's seat or overhead. The majority of participants used both hands (62%) to load their WC frame, and overall, most loaded their frame into the back (62%) vs. the front seat. Sedan drivers were more likely to load their frame into the front seat than drivers of higher profile vehicles (53 vs. 17%). Average time to load the WC frame (10.7 s) was 20% of the total WC loading time and was not related to shoulder strength, frame weight, or demographic characteristics. Those who loaded their WC frame into the back seat had significantly weaker right shoulder internal rotators. Understanding car transfers and WC loading in independent drivers is crucial to prevent shoulder pain and injury and preserve community participation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus