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Children's spontaneous emotional expressions while receiving (un)wanted prizes in the presence of peers.

Visser M, Krahmer E, Swerts M - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize.Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively.Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tilburg Center for Cognition and Communication, Tilburg University, Tilburg Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Although current emotion theories emphasize the importance of contextual factors for emotional expressive behavior, developmental studies that examine such factors are currently thin on the ground. In this research, we studied the course of emotional expressions of 8- and 11-year-old children after winning a (large) first prize or a (substantially smaller) consolation prize, while playing a game competing against the computer or a physically co-present peer. We analyzed their emotional reactions by conducting two perception tests in which participants rated children's level of happiness. Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize. Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively. Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

No MeSH data available.


Perceived level of happiness as a function of age, prize and reaction.
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Figure 5: Perceived level of happiness as a function of age, prize and reaction.

Mentions: Finally, we found an interaction between age, prize and phase on the perceived level of happiness. As shown in Figure 5, 8-year-old children seemed to be less happy with their first prize as time passed. However, 11-year-old children were perceived to be happier in their reaction after they had eye contact with their opponent, compared to their reaction before they had eye contact, regardless of the type of prize.


Children's spontaneous emotional expressions while receiving (un)wanted prizes in the presence of peers.

Visser M, Krahmer E, Swerts M - Front Psychol (2015)

Perceived level of happiness as a function of age, prize and reaction.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585014&req=5

Figure 5: Perceived level of happiness as a function of age, prize and reaction.
Mentions: Finally, we found an interaction between age, prize and phase on the perceived level of happiness. As shown in Figure 5, 8-year-old children seemed to be less happy with their first prize as time passed. However, 11-year-old children were perceived to be happier in their reaction after they had eye contact with their opponent, compared to their reaction before they had eye contact, regardless of the type of prize.

Bottom Line: Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize.Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively.Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tilburg Center for Cognition and Communication, Tilburg University, Tilburg Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Although current emotion theories emphasize the importance of contextual factors for emotional expressive behavior, developmental studies that examine such factors are currently thin on the ground. In this research, we studied the course of emotional expressions of 8- and 11-year-old children after winning a (large) first prize or a (substantially smaller) consolation prize, while playing a game competing against the computer or a physically co-present peer. We analyzed their emotional reactions by conducting two perception tests in which participants rated children's level of happiness. Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize. Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively. Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

No MeSH data available.