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Children's spontaneous emotional expressions while receiving (un)wanted prizes in the presence of peers.

Visser M, Krahmer E, Swerts M - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize.Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively.Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tilburg Center for Cognition and Communication, Tilburg University, Tilburg Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Although current emotion theories emphasize the importance of contextual factors for emotional expressive behavior, developmental studies that examine such factors are currently thin on the ground. In this research, we studied the course of emotional expressions of 8- and 11-year-old children after winning a (large) first prize or a (substantially smaller) consolation prize, while playing a game competing against the computer or a physically co-present peer. We analyzed their emotional reactions by conducting two perception tests in which participants rated children's level of happiness. Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize. Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively. Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

No MeSH data available.


Perceived level of happiness as a function of age, game context and prize.
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Figure 4: Perceived level of happiness as a function of age, game context and prize.

Mentions: Finally, we found a three-way interaction between prize, game context and age on perceived happiness. Figure 4 shows that for 8-year-old children, physical presence of a contestant was not important when receiving the first prize; they appeared to be equally happy with it while playing against the computer. However, when 8-year-old children received the consolation price, they seemed to be happier when they played the game against the computer than when they played the game against a peer. In contrast, 11-year-old children who played the game in the “present peer” condition were perceived as happier with both the consolation prize as the first prize. When 11-year-olds played the game competing the computer, they were perceived to be relatively unhappy with both prizes.


Children's spontaneous emotional expressions while receiving (un)wanted prizes in the presence of peers.

Visser M, Krahmer E, Swerts M - Front Psychol (2015)

Perceived level of happiness as a function of age, game context and prize.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4585014&req=5

Figure 4: Perceived level of happiness as a function of age, game context and prize.
Mentions: Finally, we found a three-way interaction between prize, game context and age on perceived happiness. Figure 4 shows that for 8-year-old children, physical presence of a contestant was not important when receiving the first prize; they appeared to be equally happy with it while playing against the computer. However, when 8-year-old children received the consolation price, they seemed to be happier when they played the game against the computer than when they played the game against a peer. In contrast, 11-year-old children who played the game in the “present peer” condition were perceived as happier with both the consolation prize as the first prize. When 11-year-olds played the game competing the computer, they were perceived to be relatively unhappy with both prizes.

Bottom Line: Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize.Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively.Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tilburg Center for Cognition and Communication, Tilburg University, Tilburg Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Although current emotion theories emphasize the importance of contextual factors for emotional expressive behavior, developmental studies that examine such factors are currently thin on the ground. In this research, we studied the course of emotional expressions of 8- and 11-year-old children after winning a (large) first prize or a (substantially smaller) consolation prize, while playing a game competing against the computer or a physically co-present peer. We analyzed their emotional reactions by conducting two perception tests in which participants rated children's level of happiness. Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize. Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively. Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

No MeSH data available.