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The beneficial effect of testing: an event-related potential study.

Bai CH, Bridger EK, Zimmer HD, Mecklinger A - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: The enhanced memory performance for items that are tested as compared to being restudied (the testing effect) is a frequently reported memory phenomenon.In this study, we utilized the ERP correlates of successful memory encoding to address this issue, hypothesizing that if the benefit of testing is due to retrieval-related processes at test then subsequent memory effects (SMEs) should resemble the ERP correlates of retrieval-based processing in their temporal and spatial characteristics.This result shows that the processes which allow items to be more memorable over time share qualitatively similar neural correlates with the processes that relate to successful retrieval at test.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Psychology, Saarland University Saarbrücken, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The enhanced memory performance for items that are tested as compared to being restudied (the testing effect) is a frequently reported memory phenomenon. According to the episodic context account of the testing effect, this beneficial effect of testing is related to a process which reinstates the previously learnt episodic information. Few studies have explored the neural correlates of this effect at the time point when testing takes place, however. In this study, we utilized the ERP correlates of successful memory encoding to address this issue, hypothesizing that if the benefit of testing is due to retrieval-related processes at test then subsequent memory effects (SMEs) should resemble the ERP correlates of retrieval-based processing in their temporal and spatial characteristics. Participants were asked to learn Swahili-German word pairs before items were presented in either a testing or a restudy condition. Memory performance was assessed immediately and 1-day later with a cued recall task. Successfully recalling items at test increased the likelihood that items were remembered over time compared to items which were only restudied. An ERP subsequent memory contrast (later remembered vs. later forgotten tested items), which reflects the engagement of processes that ensure items are recallable the next day were topographically comparable with the ERP correlate of immediate recollection (immediately remembered vs. immediately forgotten tested items). This result shows that the processes which allow items to be more memorable over time share qualitatively similar neural correlates with the processes that relate to successful retrieval at test. This finding supports the notion that testing is more beneficial than restudying on memory performance over time because of its engagement of retrieval processes, such as the re-encoding of actively retrieved memory representations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) The ERP waveforms to restudied items which were later remember and forgotten (SR/SF) were not significantly different at any time windows of interest. (B) ERP waveforms to all restudied items (RS) and tested items categories by Memory Condition (RR, RF, FF). ERPs are plotted from 100 ms before stimulus onset to 1000 ms thereafter at frontal, central and posterior midline sites: Fz, Cz, and Pz. Three time windows of interest are marked in gray. The waveforms were low-passed filtered at 12 Hz for illustration. RR, remembered; RF, later forgotten; FF, immediately forgotten.
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Figure 3: (A) The ERP waveforms to restudied items which were later remember and forgotten (SR/SF) were not significantly different at any time windows of interest. (B) ERP waveforms to all restudied items (RS) and tested items categories by Memory Condition (RR, RF, FF). ERPs are plotted from 100 ms before stimulus onset to 1000 ms thereafter at frontal, central and posterior midline sites: Fz, Cz, and Pz. Three time windows of interest are marked in gray. The waveforms were low-passed filtered at 12 Hz for illustration. RR, remembered; RF, later forgotten; FF, immediately forgotten.

Mentions: This analysis compared ERPs elicited by restudied items that were either remembered or forgotten on Day 2 recall [contrast (i): Restudy SME]. As shown in Figure 3A, small differences from 300 to 500 ms at posterior sites were observed; however, a global ANOVA with the factors Memory Condition (SR/SF: later remembered/later forgotten) × 3 AP × 3 Laterality in the three selected time windows did not reveal any main effect of Memory Condition nor any interaction effect including this factor (See Table 2A). There were thus no significant ERP differences in the restudy condition of Phase 2 between items that were remembered or forgotten on the Day 2 recall test. Given this effect and to make the remainder of the analyses more accessible, the two restudy conditions (SR/SF) were collapsed into one RS condition for the remainder of the relevant analyses.


The beneficial effect of testing: an event-related potential study.

Bai CH, Bridger EK, Zimmer HD, Mecklinger A - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

(A) The ERP waveforms to restudied items which were later remember and forgotten (SR/SF) were not significantly different at any time windows of interest. (B) ERP waveforms to all restudied items (RS) and tested items categories by Memory Condition (RR, RF, FF). ERPs are plotted from 100 ms before stimulus onset to 1000 ms thereafter at frontal, central and posterior midline sites: Fz, Cz, and Pz. Three time windows of interest are marked in gray. The waveforms were low-passed filtered at 12 Hz for illustration. RR, remembered; RF, later forgotten; FF, immediately forgotten.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584999&req=5

Figure 3: (A) The ERP waveforms to restudied items which were later remember and forgotten (SR/SF) were not significantly different at any time windows of interest. (B) ERP waveforms to all restudied items (RS) and tested items categories by Memory Condition (RR, RF, FF). ERPs are plotted from 100 ms before stimulus onset to 1000 ms thereafter at frontal, central and posterior midline sites: Fz, Cz, and Pz. Three time windows of interest are marked in gray. The waveforms were low-passed filtered at 12 Hz for illustration. RR, remembered; RF, later forgotten; FF, immediately forgotten.
Mentions: This analysis compared ERPs elicited by restudied items that were either remembered or forgotten on Day 2 recall [contrast (i): Restudy SME]. As shown in Figure 3A, small differences from 300 to 500 ms at posterior sites were observed; however, a global ANOVA with the factors Memory Condition (SR/SF: later remembered/later forgotten) × 3 AP × 3 Laterality in the three selected time windows did not reveal any main effect of Memory Condition nor any interaction effect including this factor (See Table 2A). There were thus no significant ERP differences in the restudy condition of Phase 2 between items that were remembered or forgotten on the Day 2 recall test. Given this effect and to make the remainder of the analyses more accessible, the two restudy conditions (SR/SF) were collapsed into one RS condition for the remainder of the relevant analyses.

Bottom Line: The enhanced memory performance for items that are tested as compared to being restudied (the testing effect) is a frequently reported memory phenomenon.In this study, we utilized the ERP correlates of successful memory encoding to address this issue, hypothesizing that if the benefit of testing is due to retrieval-related processes at test then subsequent memory effects (SMEs) should resemble the ERP correlates of retrieval-based processing in their temporal and spatial characteristics.This result shows that the processes which allow items to be more memorable over time share qualitatively similar neural correlates with the processes that relate to successful retrieval at test.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Psychology, Saarland University Saarbrücken, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The enhanced memory performance for items that are tested as compared to being restudied (the testing effect) is a frequently reported memory phenomenon. According to the episodic context account of the testing effect, this beneficial effect of testing is related to a process which reinstates the previously learnt episodic information. Few studies have explored the neural correlates of this effect at the time point when testing takes place, however. In this study, we utilized the ERP correlates of successful memory encoding to address this issue, hypothesizing that if the benefit of testing is due to retrieval-related processes at test then subsequent memory effects (SMEs) should resemble the ERP correlates of retrieval-based processing in their temporal and spatial characteristics. Participants were asked to learn Swahili-German word pairs before items were presented in either a testing or a restudy condition. Memory performance was assessed immediately and 1-day later with a cued recall task. Successfully recalling items at test increased the likelihood that items were remembered over time compared to items which were only restudied. An ERP subsequent memory contrast (later remembered vs. later forgotten tested items), which reflects the engagement of processes that ensure items are recallable the next day were topographically comparable with the ERP correlate of immediate recollection (immediately remembered vs. immediately forgotten tested items). This result shows that the processes which allow items to be more memorable over time share qualitatively similar neural correlates with the processes that relate to successful retrieval at test. This finding supports the notion that testing is more beneficial than restudying on memory performance over time because of its engagement of retrieval processes, such as the re-encoding of actively retrieved memory representations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus