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Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes.

Mayo S, Gutiérrez S, Malmierca MG, Lorenzana A, Campelo MP, Hermosa R, Casquero PA - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds.T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani.This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Group of Engineering and Sustainable Agriculture, Natural Resources Institute, University of León León, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression of CH5b, CH1, PR1, PR2, PR3, PR4, and PAL genes in comparison with α-actin and PvEF-1α reference genes. The comparisons and statistical analysis were performed using the REST2009©program (Pfaffl et al., 2002). The numeric data are illustrated at the bottom of the figure and those showing differences statistically significant (p < 0.05) are indicated with an asterisk and they are boxed in the graphic representation. Comparison of the gene expression of the bean defense-related genes (A) in plants infected with R. solani R43 vs. control plants. (B) In plants treated with Trichoderma T019 vs. control plants (C) In plants infected with R. solani R43 and treated with Trichoderma T019 vs. plants infected with R. solani R43.
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Figure 5: Expression of CH5b, CH1, PR1, PR2, PR3, PR4, and PAL genes in comparison with α-actin and PvEF-1α reference genes. The comparisons and statistical analysis were performed using the REST2009©program (Pfaffl et al., 2002). The numeric data are illustrated at the bottom of the figure and those showing differences statistically significant (p < 0.05) are indicated with an asterisk and they are boxed in the graphic representation. Comparison of the gene expression of the bean defense-related genes (A) in plants infected with R. solani R43 vs. control plants. (B) In plants treated with Trichoderma T019 vs. control plants (C) In plants infected with R. solani R43 and treated with Trichoderma T019 vs. plants infected with R. solani R43.

Mentions: α-actin and PvEF1α were used as housekeeping genes to determine the relative expression level of the other genes analyzed in the present work. Trichoderma T019 strain was selected, based on its positive effects on bean phenotype with and without R. solani infection. The results included in Figure 5 showed that: (i) R. solani down-regulated the expression of all the P. vulgaris defense-related genes analyzed (Figure 5A), raising values of expression ranging between 0.099 (p = 0.029) for PR2 and 0.397 (p = 0.045) for CH1; (ii) In plants treated with T019 compared with control plants (bean plants not treated with Trichoderma nor infected with R. solani) only the CH5b and PR2 were significantly up-regulated, raising comparative expression values of 1.495 (p = 0.000) and 24.492 (p = 0.000), respectively (Figure 5B). Finally, (iii) treatment with T019 and infection with R. solani significantly up-regulated the expression ratio of the analyzed genes, except PAL, in comparison with plants only infected with R. solani, with values ranging from 1.420 (p = 0.000) to 42.975 (p = 0.000) for CH1 and PR4 respectively (Figure 5C).


Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes.

Mayo S, Gutiérrez S, Malmierca MG, Lorenzana A, Campelo MP, Hermosa R, Casquero PA - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Expression of CH5b, CH1, PR1, PR2, PR3, PR4, and PAL genes in comparison with α-actin and PvEF-1α reference genes. The comparisons and statistical analysis were performed using the REST2009©program (Pfaffl et al., 2002). The numeric data are illustrated at the bottom of the figure and those showing differences statistically significant (p < 0.05) are indicated with an asterisk and they are boxed in the graphic representation. Comparison of the gene expression of the bean defense-related genes (A) in plants infected with R. solani R43 vs. control plants. (B) In plants treated with Trichoderma T019 vs. control plants (C) In plants infected with R. solani R43 and treated with Trichoderma T019 vs. plants infected with R. solani R43.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584982&req=5

Figure 5: Expression of CH5b, CH1, PR1, PR2, PR3, PR4, and PAL genes in comparison with α-actin and PvEF-1α reference genes. The comparisons and statistical analysis were performed using the REST2009©program (Pfaffl et al., 2002). The numeric data are illustrated at the bottom of the figure and those showing differences statistically significant (p < 0.05) are indicated with an asterisk and they are boxed in the graphic representation. Comparison of the gene expression of the bean defense-related genes (A) in plants infected with R. solani R43 vs. control plants. (B) In plants treated with Trichoderma T019 vs. control plants (C) In plants infected with R. solani R43 and treated with Trichoderma T019 vs. plants infected with R. solani R43.
Mentions: α-actin and PvEF1α were used as housekeeping genes to determine the relative expression level of the other genes analyzed in the present work. Trichoderma T019 strain was selected, based on its positive effects on bean phenotype with and without R. solani infection. The results included in Figure 5 showed that: (i) R. solani down-regulated the expression of all the P. vulgaris defense-related genes analyzed (Figure 5A), raising values of expression ranging between 0.099 (p = 0.029) for PR2 and 0.397 (p = 0.045) for CH1; (ii) In plants treated with T019 compared with control plants (bean plants not treated with Trichoderma nor infected with R. solani) only the CH5b and PR2 were significantly up-regulated, raising comparative expression values of 1.495 (p = 0.000) and 24.492 (p = 0.000), respectively (Figure 5B). Finally, (iii) treatment with T019 and infection with R. solani significantly up-regulated the expression ratio of the analyzed genes, except PAL, in comparison with plants only infected with R. solani, with values ranging from 1.420 (p = 0.000) to 42.975 (p = 0.000) for CH1 and PR4 respectively (Figure 5C).

Bottom Line: Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds.T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani.This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Group of Engineering and Sustainable Agriculture, Natural Resources Institute, University of León León, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus