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Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes.

Mayo S, Gutiérrez S, Malmierca MG, Lorenzana A, Campelo MP, Hermosa R, Casquero PA - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds.T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani.This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Group of Engineering and Sustainable Agriculture, Natural Resources Institute, University of León León, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Inhibition of R. solani growth by metabolites of Trichoderma spp in assay on membranes (B) Growth of Trichoderma (right) and R. solani (left) in direct confrontation assays. Parameters to calculate the percentage of inhibition of growth in direct confrontation (ID) % ID = [(r1−r2)/r1] x 100.
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Figure 1: (A) Inhibition of R. solani growth by metabolites of Trichoderma spp in assay on membranes (B) Growth of Trichoderma (right) and R. solani (left) in direct confrontation assays. Parameters to calculate the percentage of inhibition of growth in direct confrontation (ID) % ID = [(r1−r2)/r1] x 100.

Mentions: The antifungal assay on membranes was used to quantify the ability of the Trichoderma isolates to produce metabolites and/or enzymes with inhibitory activity against R. solani. The surface of Petri dishes containing PDA medium was overlaid with a sterile cellophane membrane. Trichoderma plugs, extracted from PDA dishes grown for 7 days at 22°C, were placed in the center of the dish with the cellophane sheet, containing PDA medium, and incubated for 48 h at 22°C. Then, the cellophane membranes along with the mycelia of Trichoderma isolates were removed and R. solani plugs were placed in the same plates. Growth of R. solani was recorded after 72 h to calculate the percentage of pathogen growth inhibition (Figure 1A). Control PDA plates of R. solani, where Trichoderma spp. had not been previously grown, were also prepared in the same conditions as above. The percentage of inhibition (IM) was calculated after 3 days of growth of R. solani in this medium using the formula %IM = [(C–T)/C]x100 (C: diameter of the R. solani control; T: diameter of R. solani after being exposed to the metabolites of Trichoderma spp.). Experiments were performed with four replicates. The results were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher least significant difference (LSD) tests using SAS (SAS Institute Inc., 2004, Cary, NC, USA).


Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes.

Mayo S, Gutiérrez S, Malmierca MG, Lorenzana A, Campelo MP, Hermosa R, Casquero PA - Front Plant Sci (2015)

(A) Inhibition of R. solani growth by metabolites of Trichoderma spp in assay on membranes (B) Growth of Trichoderma (right) and R. solani (left) in direct confrontation assays. Parameters to calculate the percentage of inhibition of growth in direct confrontation (ID) % ID = [(r1−r2)/r1] x 100.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584982&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Inhibition of R. solani growth by metabolites of Trichoderma spp in assay on membranes (B) Growth of Trichoderma (right) and R. solani (left) in direct confrontation assays. Parameters to calculate the percentage of inhibition of growth in direct confrontation (ID) % ID = [(r1−r2)/r1] x 100.
Mentions: The antifungal assay on membranes was used to quantify the ability of the Trichoderma isolates to produce metabolites and/or enzymes with inhibitory activity against R. solani. The surface of Petri dishes containing PDA medium was overlaid with a sterile cellophane membrane. Trichoderma plugs, extracted from PDA dishes grown for 7 days at 22°C, were placed in the center of the dish with the cellophane sheet, containing PDA medium, and incubated for 48 h at 22°C. Then, the cellophane membranes along with the mycelia of Trichoderma isolates were removed and R. solani plugs were placed in the same plates. Growth of R. solani was recorded after 72 h to calculate the percentage of pathogen growth inhibition (Figure 1A). Control PDA plates of R. solani, where Trichoderma spp. had not been previously grown, were also prepared in the same conditions as above. The percentage of inhibition (IM) was calculated after 3 days of growth of R. solani in this medium using the formula %IM = [(C–T)/C]x100 (C: diameter of the R. solani control; T: diameter of R. solani after being exposed to the metabolites of Trichoderma spp.). Experiments were performed with four replicates. The results were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher least significant difference (LSD) tests using SAS (SAS Institute Inc., 2004, Cary, NC, USA).

Bottom Line: Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds.T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani.This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Group of Engineering and Sustainable Agriculture, Natural Resources Institute, University of León León, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus