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Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms.

Pandey P, Ramegowda V, Senthil-Kumar M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss.In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination.Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Plant Genome Research New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat-drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought-pathogen and heat-pathogen as examples of abiotic-biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Model representing cross talk between drought and pathogen stress signaling pathway from individual stress studies and its relation to shared and unique response pathway provoked under combined stress. The two inverted triangles in the upper panel represents the drought stress (A) and biotic stress signaling pathway (B) consisting of signal perception, signal transduction, gene expression and response generation steps with the representative gene products. The inverted shape represents the general response (wide upper side) at the stress perception and signal transduction stage culminating to a specific response (tapering lower end) contributing to tolerance to a particular stress. The response of the plants to combined drought and pathogen stress consist of both the shared (responses common to drought and pathogen stress) and unique responses as represented by the triangle (C). The overall response of plants to the combined stress is governed by the key players involving ROS, Ca2+, MAPKs, and the different transcription factors as well as some unique genes regulating the tailored responses. The shared responses can be deciphered by understanding the cross talk between the drought and the pathogen stress tolerance signaling networks whereas dedicated studies are required to understand the unique responses. The yellow colored small triangle represents the responses shared between drought and combined stress whereas the blue triangle represents the responses shared between pathogen and combined stress. The overlapping area between the two small triangles represents the responses shared by the drought and pathogen stress. The red colored triangle at the apex represents the unique response under the combined stress. The blue and yellow color spheres represent the calcium and ROS molecules. The red color arrow represents the MAPK pathway. The dashed arrows indicate the cross talk wherein the red colored dashed arrows represent the suppression and blue dashed arrows represent the activation of the respective stress responsive genes. PM, plasma membrane; ABA, abscisic acid; SA, salicylic acid; JA, jasmonic acid; ET, ethylene; M, MAPK pathway; ABA dep, ABA dependent pathway; ABA indep, ABA independent pathway; DREB, dehydration responsive element binding; NAC, NAM-ATAF and CUC 6 transcription factor; ABF, ABA binding factor; AREB, ABA responsive element binding; Myb, myeloblastosis; Myc, myelocytomatosis; ERF, ethylene responsive factor; WRKY stands for the first four amino acids (tryptophan [W], arginine [R], lysine [K], and tyrosine [Y] of the heptapeptide WRKYGQK, which is the hall mark of WRKY proteins; COI1, coronatine insensitive 1; LEA, late embryogenesis; Gly, glyoxylase; dehyd, Dehydrin; PR, pathogenesis related; ROS, reactive oxygen species.
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Figure 3: Model representing cross talk between drought and pathogen stress signaling pathway from individual stress studies and its relation to shared and unique response pathway provoked under combined stress. The two inverted triangles in the upper panel represents the drought stress (A) and biotic stress signaling pathway (B) consisting of signal perception, signal transduction, gene expression and response generation steps with the representative gene products. The inverted shape represents the general response (wide upper side) at the stress perception and signal transduction stage culminating to a specific response (tapering lower end) contributing to tolerance to a particular stress. The response of the plants to combined drought and pathogen stress consist of both the shared (responses common to drought and pathogen stress) and unique responses as represented by the triangle (C). The overall response of plants to the combined stress is governed by the key players involving ROS, Ca2+, MAPKs, and the different transcription factors as well as some unique genes regulating the tailored responses. The shared responses can be deciphered by understanding the cross talk between the drought and the pathogen stress tolerance signaling networks whereas dedicated studies are required to understand the unique responses. The yellow colored small triangle represents the responses shared between drought and combined stress whereas the blue triangle represents the responses shared between pathogen and combined stress. The overlapping area between the two small triangles represents the responses shared by the drought and pathogen stress. The red colored triangle at the apex represents the unique response under the combined stress. The blue and yellow color spheres represent the calcium and ROS molecules. The red color arrow represents the MAPK pathway. The dashed arrows indicate the cross talk wherein the red colored dashed arrows represent the suppression and blue dashed arrows represent the activation of the respective stress responsive genes. PM, plasma membrane; ABA, abscisic acid; SA, salicylic acid; JA, jasmonic acid; ET, ethylene; M, MAPK pathway; ABA dep, ABA dependent pathway; ABA indep, ABA independent pathway; DREB, dehydration responsive element binding; NAC, NAM-ATAF and CUC 6 transcription factor; ABF, ABA binding factor; AREB, ABA responsive element binding; Myb, myeloblastosis; Myc, myelocytomatosis; ERF, ethylene responsive factor; WRKY stands for the first four amino acids (tryptophan [W], arginine [R], lysine [K], and tyrosine [Y] of the heptapeptide WRKYGQK, which is the hall mark of WRKY proteins; COI1, coronatine insensitive 1; LEA, late embryogenesis; Gly, glyoxylase; dehyd, Dehydrin; PR, pathogenesis related; ROS, reactive oxygen species.

Mentions: Apart from the unique gene expression mediated by different stress conditions, there can be various points of cross talk between the stress signaling pathways (Figures 3A,B). As defined by Knight and Knight (2001) cross talk refers to “any instance of two signaling pathways from different stressors that converge.” The signaling pathways for abiotic and biotic stresses share common elements including ROS (Møller et al., 2007; Wong and Shimamoto, 2009), calcium ions (Galon et al., 2010), transcription factors (Walley and Dehesh, 2010), hormones (Fonseca et al., 2009; Ton et al., 2009), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades (Pitzschke et al., 2009). Identification of cross talk between signaling pathways has been crucial in envisaging and strengthening our understanding on regulation of plants response to a particular stress condition. In recent years, the studies dealing with cross talk between abiotic and biotic stress signaling pathways have shed light on genes or gene products that are involved in two different stress conditions and thus are a part of shared response. The transgenic overexpression or down-regulation of these genes showed that they play crucial role in conferring tolerance to more than one abiotic or biotic stress conditions (Supplementary Table 2). Thus, these genes can be significant in providing resistance to plants against combined biotic and abiotic stresses.


Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms.

Pandey P, Ramegowda V, Senthil-Kumar M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Model representing cross talk between drought and pathogen stress signaling pathway from individual stress studies and its relation to shared and unique response pathway provoked under combined stress. The two inverted triangles in the upper panel represents the drought stress (A) and biotic stress signaling pathway (B) consisting of signal perception, signal transduction, gene expression and response generation steps with the representative gene products. The inverted shape represents the general response (wide upper side) at the stress perception and signal transduction stage culminating to a specific response (tapering lower end) contributing to tolerance to a particular stress. The response of the plants to combined drought and pathogen stress consist of both the shared (responses common to drought and pathogen stress) and unique responses as represented by the triangle (C). The overall response of plants to the combined stress is governed by the key players involving ROS, Ca2+, MAPKs, and the different transcription factors as well as some unique genes regulating the tailored responses. The shared responses can be deciphered by understanding the cross talk between the drought and the pathogen stress tolerance signaling networks whereas dedicated studies are required to understand the unique responses. The yellow colored small triangle represents the responses shared between drought and combined stress whereas the blue triangle represents the responses shared between pathogen and combined stress. The overlapping area between the two small triangles represents the responses shared by the drought and pathogen stress. The red colored triangle at the apex represents the unique response under the combined stress. The blue and yellow color spheres represent the calcium and ROS molecules. The red color arrow represents the MAPK pathway. The dashed arrows indicate the cross talk wherein the red colored dashed arrows represent the suppression and blue dashed arrows represent the activation of the respective stress responsive genes. PM, plasma membrane; ABA, abscisic acid; SA, salicylic acid; JA, jasmonic acid; ET, ethylene; M, MAPK pathway; ABA dep, ABA dependent pathway; ABA indep, ABA independent pathway; DREB, dehydration responsive element binding; NAC, NAM-ATAF and CUC 6 transcription factor; ABF, ABA binding factor; AREB, ABA responsive element binding; Myb, myeloblastosis; Myc, myelocytomatosis; ERF, ethylene responsive factor; WRKY stands for the first four amino acids (tryptophan [W], arginine [R], lysine [K], and tyrosine [Y] of the heptapeptide WRKYGQK, which is the hall mark of WRKY proteins; COI1, coronatine insensitive 1; LEA, late embryogenesis; Gly, glyoxylase; dehyd, Dehydrin; PR, pathogenesis related; ROS, reactive oxygen species.
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Figure 3: Model representing cross talk between drought and pathogen stress signaling pathway from individual stress studies and its relation to shared and unique response pathway provoked under combined stress. The two inverted triangles in the upper panel represents the drought stress (A) and biotic stress signaling pathway (B) consisting of signal perception, signal transduction, gene expression and response generation steps with the representative gene products. The inverted shape represents the general response (wide upper side) at the stress perception and signal transduction stage culminating to a specific response (tapering lower end) contributing to tolerance to a particular stress. The response of the plants to combined drought and pathogen stress consist of both the shared (responses common to drought and pathogen stress) and unique responses as represented by the triangle (C). The overall response of plants to the combined stress is governed by the key players involving ROS, Ca2+, MAPKs, and the different transcription factors as well as some unique genes regulating the tailored responses. The shared responses can be deciphered by understanding the cross talk between the drought and the pathogen stress tolerance signaling networks whereas dedicated studies are required to understand the unique responses. The yellow colored small triangle represents the responses shared between drought and combined stress whereas the blue triangle represents the responses shared between pathogen and combined stress. The overlapping area between the two small triangles represents the responses shared by the drought and pathogen stress. The red colored triangle at the apex represents the unique response under the combined stress. The blue and yellow color spheres represent the calcium and ROS molecules. The red color arrow represents the MAPK pathway. The dashed arrows indicate the cross talk wherein the red colored dashed arrows represent the suppression and blue dashed arrows represent the activation of the respective stress responsive genes. PM, plasma membrane; ABA, abscisic acid; SA, salicylic acid; JA, jasmonic acid; ET, ethylene; M, MAPK pathway; ABA dep, ABA dependent pathway; ABA indep, ABA independent pathway; DREB, dehydration responsive element binding; NAC, NAM-ATAF and CUC 6 transcription factor; ABF, ABA binding factor; AREB, ABA responsive element binding; Myb, myeloblastosis; Myc, myelocytomatosis; ERF, ethylene responsive factor; WRKY stands for the first four amino acids (tryptophan [W], arginine [R], lysine [K], and tyrosine [Y] of the heptapeptide WRKYGQK, which is the hall mark of WRKY proteins; COI1, coronatine insensitive 1; LEA, late embryogenesis; Gly, glyoxylase; dehyd, Dehydrin; PR, pathogenesis related; ROS, reactive oxygen species.
Mentions: Apart from the unique gene expression mediated by different stress conditions, there can be various points of cross talk between the stress signaling pathways (Figures 3A,B). As defined by Knight and Knight (2001) cross talk refers to “any instance of two signaling pathways from different stressors that converge.” The signaling pathways for abiotic and biotic stresses share common elements including ROS (Møller et al., 2007; Wong and Shimamoto, 2009), calcium ions (Galon et al., 2010), transcription factors (Walley and Dehesh, 2010), hormones (Fonseca et al., 2009; Ton et al., 2009), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades (Pitzschke et al., 2009). Identification of cross talk between signaling pathways has been crucial in envisaging and strengthening our understanding on regulation of plants response to a particular stress condition. In recent years, the studies dealing with cross talk between abiotic and biotic stress signaling pathways have shed light on genes or gene products that are involved in two different stress conditions and thus are a part of shared response. The transgenic overexpression or down-regulation of these genes showed that they play crucial role in conferring tolerance to more than one abiotic or biotic stress conditions (Supplementary Table 2). Thus, these genes can be significant in providing resistance to plants against combined biotic and abiotic stresses.

Bottom Line: In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss.In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination.Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Plant Genome Research New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat-drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought-pathogen and heat-pathogen as examples of abiotic-biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus