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Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms.

Pandey P, Ramegowda V, Senthil-Kumar M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss.In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination.Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Plant Genome Research New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat-drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought-pathogen and heat-pathogen as examples of abiotic-biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Unique and shared responses and the “dominant stressor” concept in A. thaliana under combined heat, virus, and drought stress. (A) Representation of unique and shared responses of A. thaliana under drought, virus infection, and their combination(left) and heat, virus, and their combination (right). The bar diagram (left) represents the number of genes modulated exclusively under virus (V), drought (D), combined heat and drought stress (C) as well as the number of commonly regulated genes under virus infection and drought stress (DV), drought and combined (DC), virus and combined stresses (VC), and all the three stresses (CDV). The bar diagram at the right represents the number of unique genes modulated exclusively under virus (V), heat (H), combined heat and virus stress (C) as well as the number of genes commonly regulated under heat and virus infection (HV), heat and combined (CH), virus and combined stresses (CV), and all the three stresses (CHV). (B) The figure represents the dominant stressor concept. Drought and virus stress are represented by orange and blue rectangles. In this case, virus infection has more effect on the gene expression of A. thaliana plants. The number of genes unique to combined stress is far greater than that of individual stress genes and molecular response to the combined stress conditions is mostly unique. Heat and virus stress are represented by yellow and blue rectangles. In this case, heat stress has more effect on the gene expression. The number of heat and combined stress genes are nearly same and molecular response to the combined stress conditions mostly consists of genes commonly modulated under heat and combined stress. The figure is a graphical representation of the data provided in microarray study by Prasch and Sonnewald (2013). H, heat; D, drought; C, combined stress.
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Figure 2: Unique and shared responses and the “dominant stressor” concept in A. thaliana under combined heat, virus, and drought stress. (A) Representation of unique and shared responses of A. thaliana under drought, virus infection, and their combination(left) and heat, virus, and their combination (right). The bar diagram (left) represents the number of genes modulated exclusively under virus (V), drought (D), combined heat and drought stress (C) as well as the number of commonly regulated genes under virus infection and drought stress (DV), drought and combined (DC), virus and combined stresses (VC), and all the three stresses (CDV). The bar diagram at the right represents the number of unique genes modulated exclusively under virus (V), heat (H), combined heat and virus stress (C) as well as the number of genes commonly regulated under heat and virus infection (HV), heat and combined (CH), virus and combined stresses (CV), and all the three stresses (CHV). (B) The figure represents the dominant stressor concept. Drought and virus stress are represented by orange and blue rectangles. In this case, virus infection has more effect on the gene expression of A. thaliana plants. The number of genes unique to combined stress is far greater than that of individual stress genes and molecular response to the combined stress conditions is mostly unique. Heat and virus stress are represented by yellow and blue rectangles. In this case, heat stress has more effect on the gene expression. The number of heat and combined stress genes are nearly same and molecular response to the combined stress conditions mostly consists of genes commonly modulated under heat and combined stress. The figure is a graphical representation of the data provided in microarray study by Prasch and Sonnewald (2013). H, heat; D, drought; C, combined stress.

Mentions: When two stresses occur concurrently, the adaptation strategy of plants to stress combination is governed by the interaction of two stresses which is conceived by plants as a new state of stress (Mittler, 2006). Thus, adaptation strategies of plants to combined stress may be different from that of two individual stresses. The overall effect of stress combination on plants depends largely on the age of plant, the inherent stress-resistant or susceptible nature of plant and severity of two stresses involved. Plant responses to stress combination are majorly determined by the more severe stress (dominant stressor, Figures 1B, 2B) such that the physiological and molecular processes of plants subjected to combined stress resemble with those observed under more severe individual stress.


Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms.

Pandey P, Ramegowda V, Senthil-Kumar M - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Unique and shared responses and the “dominant stressor” concept in A. thaliana under combined heat, virus, and drought stress. (A) Representation of unique and shared responses of A. thaliana under drought, virus infection, and their combination(left) and heat, virus, and their combination (right). The bar diagram (left) represents the number of genes modulated exclusively under virus (V), drought (D), combined heat and drought stress (C) as well as the number of commonly regulated genes under virus infection and drought stress (DV), drought and combined (DC), virus and combined stresses (VC), and all the three stresses (CDV). The bar diagram at the right represents the number of unique genes modulated exclusively under virus (V), heat (H), combined heat and virus stress (C) as well as the number of genes commonly regulated under heat and virus infection (HV), heat and combined (CH), virus and combined stresses (CV), and all the three stresses (CHV). (B) The figure represents the dominant stressor concept. Drought and virus stress are represented by orange and blue rectangles. In this case, virus infection has more effect on the gene expression of A. thaliana plants. The number of genes unique to combined stress is far greater than that of individual stress genes and molecular response to the combined stress conditions is mostly unique. Heat and virus stress are represented by yellow and blue rectangles. In this case, heat stress has more effect on the gene expression. The number of heat and combined stress genes are nearly same and molecular response to the combined stress conditions mostly consists of genes commonly modulated under heat and combined stress. The figure is a graphical representation of the data provided in microarray study by Prasch and Sonnewald (2013). H, heat; D, drought; C, combined stress.
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Figure 2: Unique and shared responses and the “dominant stressor” concept in A. thaliana under combined heat, virus, and drought stress. (A) Representation of unique and shared responses of A. thaliana under drought, virus infection, and their combination(left) and heat, virus, and their combination (right). The bar diagram (left) represents the number of genes modulated exclusively under virus (V), drought (D), combined heat and drought stress (C) as well as the number of commonly regulated genes under virus infection and drought stress (DV), drought and combined (DC), virus and combined stresses (VC), and all the three stresses (CDV). The bar diagram at the right represents the number of unique genes modulated exclusively under virus (V), heat (H), combined heat and virus stress (C) as well as the number of genes commonly regulated under heat and virus infection (HV), heat and combined (CH), virus and combined stresses (CV), and all the three stresses (CHV). (B) The figure represents the dominant stressor concept. Drought and virus stress are represented by orange and blue rectangles. In this case, virus infection has more effect on the gene expression of A. thaliana plants. The number of genes unique to combined stress is far greater than that of individual stress genes and molecular response to the combined stress conditions is mostly unique. Heat and virus stress are represented by yellow and blue rectangles. In this case, heat stress has more effect on the gene expression. The number of heat and combined stress genes are nearly same and molecular response to the combined stress conditions mostly consists of genes commonly modulated under heat and combined stress. The figure is a graphical representation of the data provided in microarray study by Prasch and Sonnewald (2013). H, heat; D, drought; C, combined stress.
Mentions: When two stresses occur concurrently, the adaptation strategy of plants to stress combination is governed by the interaction of two stresses which is conceived by plants as a new state of stress (Mittler, 2006). Thus, adaptation strategies of plants to combined stress may be different from that of two individual stresses. The overall effect of stress combination on plants depends largely on the age of plant, the inherent stress-resistant or susceptible nature of plant and severity of two stresses involved. Plant responses to stress combination are majorly determined by the more severe stress (dominant stressor, Figures 1B, 2B) such that the physiological and molecular processes of plants subjected to combined stress resemble with those observed under more severe individual stress.

Bottom Line: In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss.In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination.Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Plant Genome Research New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat-drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought-pathogen and heat-pathogen as examples of abiotic-biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus