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How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

Sánchez-Pérez N, Fuentes LJ, Pina V, López-López JA, González-Salinas C - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account.Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills.Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Basic Psychology and Methodology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Murcia Murcia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9-12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school.

No MeSH data available.


Intellectual-abilities model with IQ and study skills as mediators in the AF and math achievement (teacher’s report) association. Numbers in the figure are beta coefficients ( for mediational model are in parentheses). ∗p < 0.05; ∗∗p < 0.01; ∗∗∗p < 0.001.
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Figure 4: Intellectual-abilities model with IQ and study skills as mediators in the AF and math achievement (teacher’s report) association. Numbers in the figure are beta coefficients ( for mediational model are in parentheses). ∗p < 0.05; ∗∗p < 0.01; ∗∗∗p < 0.001.

Mentions: Finally, the cognitive pathway model was tested taking this time teacher’s mathematics report as the dependent variable. The first equation of mediation assessed the relation between AF and the potential mediators. This step has been already informed above. In the second step, regressing AF on teacher’s report yielded a significant effect [F(2,129) = 6.62, p = 0.002, R2adj = 0.08]. AF had a significant positive influence on math achievement informed by teachers ( = 0.23, p = 0.007), after controlling for the effect of SES ( = 0.16, p = 0.057). On the third equation, regressing teacher’s report on AF, study skills, and IQ yielded a significant effect [F(4,125) = 20.47, p < 0.001, R2adj = 0.38], with a 38% of explained variance on teacher’s math report. Study skills ( = 0.60, p < 0.001) and IQ ( = 0.17, p = 0.029) showed a significant positive relationship with math achievement, even after controlling for the effect of SES ( = 0.032, p = 0.668), whereas the relation between the independent variable (AF) and the dependent variable was non-significant ( = -0.11, p = 0.21; see Figure 4). Children with higher scores on IQ and better study skills obtained better scores on teacher’s report of math achievement and, as expected, children’s attentional control had a positive effect on IQ as well as study abilities, which in turn influenced teacher’s report of math achievement. Mediation was confirmed since the bootstrapping test did not include zero in the confidence interval of neither IQ (range = 0.01–0.11) nor study skills (range = 0.24–0.49).


How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

Sánchez-Pérez N, Fuentes LJ, Pina V, López-López JA, González-Salinas C - Front Psychol (2015)

Intellectual-abilities model with IQ and study skills as mediators in the AF and math achievement (teacher’s report) association. Numbers in the figure are beta coefficients ( for mediational model are in parentheses). ∗p < 0.05; ∗∗p < 0.01; ∗∗∗p < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584978&req=5

Figure 4: Intellectual-abilities model with IQ and study skills as mediators in the AF and math achievement (teacher’s report) association. Numbers in the figure are beta coefficients ( for mediational model are in parentheses). ∗p < 0.05; ∗∗p < 0.01; ∗∗∗p < 0.001.
Mentions: Finally, the cognitive pathway model was tested taking this time teacher’s mathematics report as the dependent variable. The first equation of mediation assessed the relation between AF and the potential mediators. This step has been already informed above. In the second step, regressing AF on teacher’s report yielded a significant effect [F(2,129) = 6.62, p = 0.002, R2adj = 0.08]. AF had a significant positive influence on math achievement informed by teachers ( = 0.23, p = 0.007), after controlling for the effect of SES ( = 0.16, p = 0.057). On the third equation, regressing teacher’s report on AF, study skills, and IQ yielded a significant effect [F(4,125) = 20.47, p < 0.001, R2adj = 0.38], with a 38% of explained variance on teacher’s math report. Study skills ( = 0.60, p < 0.001) and IQ ( = 0.17, p = 0.029) showed a significant positive relationship with math achievement, even after controlling for the effect of SES ( = 0.032, p = 0.668), whereas the relation between the independent variable (AF) and the dependent variable was non-significant ( = -0.11, p = 0.21; see Figure 4). Children with higher scores on IQ and better study skills obtained better scores on teacher’s report of math achievement and, as expected, children’s attentional control had a positive effect on IQ as well as study abilities, which in turn influenced teacher’s report of math achievement. Mediation was confirmed since the bootstrapping test did not include zero in the confidence interval of neither IQ (range = 0.01–0.11) nor study skills (range = 0.24–0.49).

Bottom Line: Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account.Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills.Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Basic Psychology and Methodology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Murcia Murcia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9-12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school.

No MeSH data available.