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The globally widespread genus Sulfurimonas: versatile energy metabolisms and adaptations to redox clines.

Han Y, Perner M - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Multiple copies of one type of enzyme (e.g., sulfide:quinone reductases and hydrogenases) may play a pivotal role in Sulfurimonas' flexibility to colonize disparate environments.Many of these genes appear to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer which has promoted adaptations to the distinct habitats.Here we summarize Sulfurimonas' versatile energy metabolisms and link their physiological properties to their global distribution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Biology of Microbial Consortia, Biocenter Klein Flottbek, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Sulfurimonas species are commonly isolated from sulfidic habitats and numerous 16S rRNA sequences related to Sulfurimonas species have been identified in chemically distinct environments, such as hydrothermal deep-sea vents, marine sediments, the ocean's water column, and terrestrial habitats. In some of these habitats, Sulfurimonas have been demonstrated to play an important role in chemoautotrophic processes. Sulfurimonas species can grow with a variety of electron donors and acceptors, which may contribute to their widespread distribution. Multiple copies of one type of enzyme (e.g., sulfide:quinone reductases and hydrogenases) may play a pivotal role in Sulfurimonas' flexibility to colonize disparate environments. Many of these genes appear to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer which has promoted adaptations to the distinct habitats. Here we summarize Sulfurimonas' versatile energy metabolisms and link their physiological properties to their global distribution.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogenetic relationships of SQR sequences to those from Sulfurimonas species. The sequences of SQRs were compared with the non-redundant protein database of NCBI by using BLASTP. The phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA6 (Tamura et al., 2013) based on the Maximum-likelihood method with 1000 bootstrap replications after multiple alignments with ClustalW (Larkin et al., 2007). The percentage of bootstrap resamplings ≥70 is indicated on the branches. The scale bar represents the expected number of changes per amino acids position. The types of SQRs are classified according to Marcia et al. (2010). Isolation sources of Sulfurimonas species are indicated in different colors: blue, marine non-vent water system; purple, marine sediments; red, hydrothermal environments. The proteins which has a TAT motif at N-terminus are marked with ‘∗’.
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Figure 2: Phylogenetic relationships of SQR sequences to those from Sulfurimonas species. The sequences of SQRs were compared with the non-redundant protein database of NCBI by using BLASTP. The phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA6 (Tamura et al., 2013) based on the Maximum-likelihood method with 1000 bootstrap replications after multiple alignments with ClustalW (Larkin et al., 2007). The percentage of bootstrap resamplings ≥70 is indicated on the branches. The scale bar represents the expected number of changes per amino acids position. The types of SQRs are classified according to Marcia et al. (2010). Isolation sources of Sulfurimonas species are indicated in different colors: blue, marine non-vent water system; purple, marine sediments; red, hydrothermal environments. The proteins which has a TAT motif at N-terminus are marked with ‘∗’.

Mentions: Except for S. paralvinellae, all strains can oxidize sulfide and produce sulfate as an end product and elemental sulfur and polysulfide as intermediate products. For chemolithotrophic bacteria two sulfide oxidizing pathways exist: in one pathway sulfide:quinone reductase (SQR, EC 1.8.5.4) and in the other pathway flavocytochrome c (FCC, also known as flavocytochrome c sulfide dehydrogenase) catalyzes the reaction (Griesbeck et al., 2000). The released electrons are donated to the electron transport chain either at the level of quinone, if SQR is used, or at the level of cytochrome c, if FCC is used (Griesbeck et al., 2000). Since no FCC encoding genes are found in any of the known Sulfurimonas’ genomes, sulfide oxidation is likely catalyzed by SQR. According to the structure-based sequence fingerprints, SQR proteins have been classified into six types, SQR Types I – VI (Figure 2, Pham et al., 2008; Marcia et al., 2010). However, several aspects on SQR functioning remain unresolved, including whether all Types of SQR bind quinones in the same way, and whether the different SQRs generate the same intermediates and same sulfur products during sulfide oxidation (Marcia et al., 2010).


The globally widespread genus Sulfurimonas: versatile energy metabolisms and adaptations to redox clines.

Han Y, Perner M - Front Microbiol (2015)

Phylogenetic relationships of SQR sequences to those from Sulfurimonas species. The sequences of SQRs were compared with the non-redundant protein database of NCBI by using BLASTP. The phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA6 (Tamura et al., 2013) based on the Maximum-likelihood method with 1000 bootstrap replications after multiple alignments with ClustalW (Larkin et al., 2007). The percentage of bootstrap resamplings ≥70 is indicated on the branches. The scale bar represents the expected number of changes per amino acids position. The types of SQRs are classified according to Marcia et al. (2010). Isolation sources of Sulfurimonas species are indicated in different colors: blue, marine non-vent water system; purple, marine sediments; red, hydrothermal environments. The proteins which has a TAT motif at N-terminus are marked with ‘∗’.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584964&req=5

Figure 2: Phylogenetic relationships of SQR sequences to those from Sulfurimonas species. The sequences of SQRs were compared with the non-redundant protein database of NCBI by using BLASTP. The phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA6 (Tamura et al., 2013) based on the Maximum-likelihood method with 1000 bootstrap replications after multiple alignments with ClustalW (Larkin et al., 2007). The percentage of bootstrap resamplings ≥70 is indicated on the branches. The scale bar represents the expected number of changes per amino acids position. The types of SQRs are classified according to Marcia et al. (2010). Isolation sources of Sulfurimonas species are indicated in different colors: blue, marine non-vent water system; purple, marine sediments; red, hydrothermal environments. The proteins which has a TAT motif at N-terminus are marked with ‘∗’.
Mentions: Except for S. paralvinellae, all strains can oxidize sulfide and produce sulfate as an end product and elemental sulfur and polysulfide as intermediate products. For chemolithotrophic bacteria two sulfide oxidizing pathways exist: in one pathway sulfide:quinone reductase (SQR, EC 1.8.5.4) and in the other pathway flavocytochrome c (FCC, also known as flavocytochrome c sulfide dehydrogenase) catalyzes the reaction (Griesbeck et al., 2000). The released electrons are donated to the electron transport chain either at the level of quinone, if SQR is used, or at the level of cytochrome c, if FCC is used (Griesbeck et al., 2000). Since no FCC encoding genes are found in any of the known Sulfurimonas’ genomes, sulfide oxidation is likely catalyzed by SQR. According to the structure-based sequence fingerprints, SQR proteins have been classified into six types, SQR Types I – VI (Figure 2, Pham et al., 2008; Marcia et al., 2010). However, several aspects on SQR functioning remain unresolved, including whether all Types of SQR bind quinones in the same way, and whether the different SQRs generate the same intermediates and same sulfur products during sulfide oxidation (Marcia et al., 2010).

Bottom Line: Multiple copies of one type of enzyme (e.g., sulfide:quinone reductases and hydrogenases) may play a pivotal role in Sulfurimonas' flexibility to colonize disparate environments.Many of these genes appear to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer which has promoted adaptations to the distinct habitats.Here we summarize Sulfurimonas' versatile energy metabolisms and link their physiological properties to their global distribution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Biology of Microbial Consortia, Biocenter Klein Flottbek, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Sulfurimonas species are commonly isolated from sulfidic habitats and numerous 16S rRNA sequences related to Sulfurimonas species have been identified in chemically distinct environments, such as hydrothermal deep-sea vents, marine sediments, the ocean's water column, and terrestrial habitats. In some of these habitats, Sulfurimonas have been demonstrated to play an important role in chemoautotrophic processes. Sulfurimonas species can grow with a variety of electron donors and acceptors, which may contribute to their widespread distribution. Multiple copies of one type of enzyme (e.g., sulfide:quinone reductases and hydrogenases) may play a pivotal role in Sulfurimonas' flexibility to colonize disparate environments. Many of these genes appear to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer which has promoted adaptations to the distinct habitats. Here we summarize Sulfurimonas' versatile energy metabolisms and link their physiological properties to their global distribution.

No MeSH data available.