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The 'island effect' in terrestrial global change experiments: a problem with no solution?

Leuzinger S, Fatichi S, Cusens J, Körner C, Niklaus PA - AoB Plants (2015)

Bottom Line: Here, we discuss its implications in various global change experiments with plants.We also suggest ways to complement experiments using modelling approaches and observational studies.Ultimately, there is no obvious solution to deal with the island effect in field experiments and only models can provide an estimate of modification of responses by these feedbacks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Applied Ecology New Zealand, School of Applied Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand sleuzing@aut.ac.nz.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The potential for the island effect is maximal at intermediate spatial scales. This is because the two effects shown (effect of gs on atmospheric humidity, influence of surrounding vegetation on local humidity) are compensatory in terms of promoting the island effect. Generally, atmospherically well-coupled plants/stands such as tree canopies are more prone to the island effect than less coupled ones (e.g. grassland, see McNaughton and Jarvis 1991).
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PLV092F3: The potential for the island effect is maximal at intermediate spatial scales. This is because the two effects shown (effect of gs on atmospheric humidity, influence of surrounding vegetation on local humidity) are compensatory in terms of promoting the island effect. Generally, atmospherically well-coupled plants/stands such as tree canopies are more prone to the island effect than less coupled ones (e.g. grassland, see McNaughton and Jarvis 1991).

Mentions: Can we identify at what spatiotemporal scale we are most likely to see an island effect in an experiment? The VPD conditions a leaf or plant ‘sees’ are a blend of its own transpiration as well as that of the neighbouring leaves, plants, stand, region or continent. On the one hand, the larger the spatial scale at which potential feedback effects act, the higher the risk that we miss them in a plot-size experiment. On the other hand, at increasing scales (from <1 m3 to many km3), the influence of a fractional change in gs on large-scale transpiration decreases (Fig. 3). This is because the bulk of Earth's evapotranspiration originates from oceans, with plant transpiration accounting for only ∼9–10 % of total water vapour input to the atmosphere (Roderick et al. 2014; Schlesinger and Jasechko 2014; Wild et al. 2015). Additionally, the feedbacks (and thus the risk of an island effect) are more pronounced in vegetation that is strongly coupled to the atmosphere, corresponding to a small aerodynamic resistance (Fig. 3) (Jarvis and McNaughton 1986).Figure 3.


The 'island effect' in terrestrial global change experiments: a problem with no solution?

Leuzinger S, Fatichi S, Cusens J, Körner C, Niklaus PA - AoB Plants (2015)

The potential for the island effect is maximal at intermediate spatial scales. This is because the two effects shown (effect of gs on atmospheric humidity, influence of surrounding vegetation on local humidity) are compensatory in terms of promoting the island effect. Generally, atmospherically well-coupled plants/stands such as tree canopies are more prone to the island effect than less coupled ones (e.g. grassland, see McNaughton and Jarvis 1991).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584962&req=5

PLV092F3: The potential for the island effect is maximal at intermediate spatial scales. This is because the two effects shown (effect of gs on atmospheric humidity, influence of surrounding vegetation on local humidity) are compensatory in terms of promoting the island effect. Generally, atmospherically well-coupled plants/stands such as tree canopies are more prone to the island effect than less coupled ones (e.g. grassland, see McNaughton and Jarvis 1991).
Mentions: Can we identify at what spatiotemporal scale we are most likely to see an island effect in an experiment? The VPD conditions a leaf or plant ‘sees’ are a blend of its own transpiration as well as that of the neighbouring leaves, plants, stand, region or continent. On the one hand, the larger the spatial scale at which potential feedback effects act, the higher the risk that we miss them in a plot-size experiment. On the other hand, at increasing scales (from <1 m3 to many km3), the influence of a fractional change in gs on large-scale transpiration decreases (Fig. 3). This is because the bulk of Earth's evapotranspiration originates from oceans, with plant transpiration accounting for only ∼9–10 % of total water vapour input to the atmosphere (Roderick et al. 2014; Schlesinger and Jasechko 2014; Wild et al. 2015). Additionally, the feedbacks (and thus the risk of an island effect) are more pronounced in vegetation that is strongly coupled to the atmosphere, corresponding to a small aerodynamic resistance (Fig. 3) (Jarvis and McNaughton 1986).Figure 3.

Bottom Line: Here, we discuss its implications in various global change experiments with plants.We also suggest ways to complement experiments using modelling approaches and observational studies.Ultimately, there is no obvious solution to deal with the island effect in field experiments and only models can provide an estimate of modification of responses by these feedbacks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Applied Ecology New Zealand, School of Applied Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand sleuzing@aut.ac.nz.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus