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The contributions of vision and haptics to reaching and grasping.

Stone KD, Gonzalez CL - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically guided object recognition.This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand.We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Brain in Action Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge AB, Canada.

ABSTRACT
This review aims to provide a comprehensive outlook on the sensory (visual and haptic) contributions to reaching and grasping. The focus is on studies in developing children, normal, and neuropsychological populations, and in sensory-deprived individuals. Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically guided object recognition. This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand. We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping. We ultimately discuss how the integration of these two sensory modalities shape hand preference.

No MeSH data available.


Experimental set-up and results from Stone and Gonzalez (2014a,b, 2015a,b). Photographs of participants completing (A) the Vision/Haptics condition (B) the Vision/Constrained-Haptics condition (note that the participant is wearing a pair of gloves) and (C) the No Vision/Haptics condition (note that the participant is wearing a blindfold) (D) Graph demonstrating right-hand use for grasping in percentage for the three sensory conditions in children and adults. White bars represent the Vision/Haptics condition. Gray bars represent the Vision/Constrained-Haptics condition. Black bars represent the No Vision/Haptics condition. The gray dashed line denotes 50% right-hand use (or equal use of each hand). Note the significant difference within sensory conditions.
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Figure 1: Experimental set-up and results from Stone and Gonzalez (2014a,b, 2015a,b). Photographs of participants completing (A) the Vision/Haptics condition (B) the Vision/Constrained-Haptics condition (note that the participant is wearing a pair of gloves) and (C) the No Vision/Haptics condition (note that the participant is wearing a blindfold) (D) Graph demonstrating right-hand use for grasping in percentage for the three sensory conditions in children and adults. White bars represent the Vision/Haptics condition. Gray bars represent the Vision/Constrained-Haptics condition. Black bars represent the No Vision/Haptics condition. The gray dashed line denotes 50% right-hand use (or equal use of each hand). Note the significant difference within sensory conditions.

Mentions: Because vision is unavailable during haptically guided tasks, individuals will use exploratory procedures (EP) to extract relevant information about the object(s) or stimuli. EPs are stereotyped patterns of hand movements used to extract object properties and features during haptic object recognition (Lederman and Klatzky, 1987, 2009). There are six observable types of EPs, each specialized for encoding specific haptic properties. These include: lateral motion (for texture); unsupported holding (for weight); pressure (for hardness); enclosure (for global shape and volume); contour following (for global shape and exact shape); and static contact (for temperature). It has been concluded that the most effective way to haptically process an object is to grasp it which at minimum combines enclosure, static contact, and unsupported holding (Lederman and Klatzky, 1990, 2009). If grasping is the most effective method to use for haptic object recognition, then grasping could be used as a model to investigate hemispheric asymmetries in haptic processing. Yet, this is rarely the case. In a series of studies, Stone and Gonzalez (2014a,b) asked right-handed individuals to grasp building blocks in order to replicate different 3D models (i.e., the block-building task) while sighted (see Figure 1A) and while blindfolded (see Figure 1C). The hand selected for picking up each block was assessed. Although a right-hand preference was observed during the visually guided portion of the task, there was a significant increase in left-hand use when the task was haptically guided (i.e., while blindfolded; see Figure 1D). Because without vision, individuals must use haptics to guide their actions (and in turn manipulate and discriminate between the different types of building blocks), the authors attributed their finding to a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptic processing. What is more, if participants haptically manipulated the building blocks in a container 5 min prior to the block-building task, they showed an even greater preference for the left hand when completing the task. It appears that 5 min of an added ‘haptic experience’ increases the preference to use the left hand. If this is the case, how would a lifetime of haptic experience affect hand preference for grasping? To address this question, investigations involving congenitally blind (CB) individuals are discussed in the following section.


The contributions of vision and haptics to reaching and grasping.

Stone KD, Gonzalez CL - Front Psychol (2015)

Experimental set-up and results from Stone and Gonzalez (2014a,b, 2015a,b). Photographs of participants completing (A) the Vision/Haptics condition (B) the Vision/Constrained-Haptics condition (note that the participant is wearing a pair of gloves) and (C) the No Vision/Haptics condition (note that the participant is wearing a blindfold) (D) Graph demonstrating right-hand use for grasping in percentage for the three sensory conditions in children and adults. White bars represent the Vision/Haptics condition. Gray bars represent the Vision/Constrained-Haptics condition. Black bars represent the No Vision/Haptics condition. The gray dashed line denotes 50% right-hand use (or equal use of each hand). Note the significant difference within sensory conditions.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 1: Experimental set-up and results from Stone and Gonzalez (2014a,b, 2015a,b). Photographs of participants completing (A) the Vision/Haptics condition (B) the Vision/Constrained-Haptics condition (note that the participant is wearing a pair of gloves) and (C) the No Vision/Haptics condition (note that the participant is wearing a blindfold) (D) Graph demonstrating right-hand use for grasping in percentage for the three sensory conditions in children and adults. White bars represent the Vision/Haptics condition. Gray bars represent the Vision/Constrained-Haptics condition. Black bars represent the No Vision/Haptics condition. The gray dashed line denotes 50% right-hand use (or equal use of each hand). Note the significant difference within sensory conditions.
Mentions: Because vision is unavailable during haptically guided tasks, individuals will use exploratory procedures (EP) to extract relevant information about the object(s) or stimuli. EPs are stereotyped patterns of hand movements used to extract object properties and features during haptic object recognition (Lederman and Klatzky, 1987, 2009). There are six observable types of EPs, each specialized for encoding specific haptic properties. These include: lateral motion (for texture); unsupported holding (for weight); pressure (for hardness); enclosure (for global shape and volume); contour following (for global shape and exact shape); and static contact (for temperature). It has been concluded that the most effective way to haptically process an object is to grasp it which at minimum combines enclosure, static contact, and unsupported holding (Lederman and Klatzky, 1990, 2009). If grasping is the most effective method to use for haptic object recognition, then grasping could be used as a model to investigate hemispheric asymmetries in haptic processing. Yet, this is rarely the case. In a series of studies, Stone and Gonzalez (2014a,b) asked right-handed individuals to grasp building blocks in order to replicate different 3D models (i.e., the block-building task) while sighted (see Figure 1A) and while blindfolded (see Figure 1C). The hand selected for picking up each block was assessed. Although a right-hand preference was observed during the visually guided portion of the task, there was a significant increase in left-hand use when the task was haptically guided (i.e., while blindfolded; see Figure 1D). Because without vision, individuals must use haptics to guide their actions (and in turn manipulate and discriminate between the different types of building blocks), the authors attributed their finding to a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptic processing. What is more, if participants haptically manipulated the building blocks in a container 5 min prior to the block-building task, they showed an even greater preference for the left hand when completing the task. It appears that 5 min of an added ‘haptic experience’ increases the preference to use the left hand. If this is the case, how would a lifetime of haptic experience affect hand preference for grasping? To address this question, investigations involving congenitally blind (CB) individuals are discussed in the following section.

Bottom Line: Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically guided object recognition.This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand.We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Brain in Action Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge AB, Canada.

ABSTRACT
This review aims to provide a comprehensive outlook on the sensory (visual and haptic) contributions to reaching and grasping. The focus is on studies in developing children, normal, and neuropsychological populations, and in sensory-deprived individuals. Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically guided object recognition. This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand. We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping. We ultimately discuss how the integration of these two sensory modalities shape hand preference.

No MeSH data available.