Limits...
Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of calcium-dependent protein kinase and its closely related kinase genes in Capsicum annuum.

Cai H, Cheng J, Yan Y, Xiao Z, Li J, Mou S, Qiu A, Lai Y, Guan D, He S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events.Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin.Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China ; College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a genome wide comprehensive analysis of genes encoding CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs) was performed in pepper, a total of 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and 8 CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in the leaves of pepper plants challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qRT-PCR.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584942&req=5

Figure 8: Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in the leaves of pepper plants challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qRT-PCR.

Mentions: To test whether pepper CDPK and CRK genes are involved in the response to biotic stresses, the expression profiles of CDPK and CRK genes were monitored in pepper plants challenged with R. solanacearum, an important causal agent of pepper bacterial wilt worldwide. The results showed that, out of the 35 CDPK and five CRK genes in the pepper genome, 8 CDPK genes and one CRK gene showed altered expression patterns in response to R. solanacearum inoculation. As shown in Figure 8, eight CDPK genes were upregulated upon R. solanacearum inoculation, and only CaCDPK10 was downregulated upon R. solanacearum inoculation. Among the eight upregulated CDPK genes, CaCDPK27, and CaCDPK22 were dramatically induced by R. solanacearum inoculation. Similar expression profiles were found among CaCDPK8, CaCDPK26, and CaCDPK31, CaCDPK15, CaCDPK17, and CaCRK4, respectively, implying that these genes may act in a coordinated manner in mediating the response of pepper to R. solanacearum inoculation.


Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of calcium-dependent protein kinase and its closely related kinase genes in Capsicum annuum.

Cai H, Cheng J, Yan Y, Xiao Z, Li J, Mou S, Qiu A, Lai Y, Guan D, He S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in the leaves of pepper plants challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qRT-PCR.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584942&req=5

Figure 8: Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in the leaves of pepper plants challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qRT-PCR.
Mentions: To test whether pepper CDPK and CRK genes are involved in the response to biotic stresses, the expression profiles of CDPK and CRK genes were monitored in pepper plants challenged with R. solanacearum, an important causal agent of pepper bacterial wilt worldwide. The results showed that, out of the 35 CDPK and five CRK genes in the pepper genome, 8 CDPK genes and one CRK gene showed altered expression patterns in response to R. solanacearum inoculation. As shown in Figure 8, eight CDPK genes were upregulated upon R. solanacearum inoculation, and only CaCDPK10 was downregulated upon R. solanacearum inoculation. Among the eight upregulated CDPK genes, CaCDPK27, and CaCDPK22 were dramatically induced by R. solanacearum inoculation. Similar expression profiles were found among CaCDPK8, CaCDPK26, and CaCDPK31, CaCDPK15, CaCDPK17, and CaCRK4, respectively, implying that these genes may act in a coordinated manner in mediating the response of pepper to R. solanacearum inoculation.

Bottom Line: Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events.Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin.Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China ; College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a genome wide comprehensive analysis of genes encoding CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs) was performed in pepper, a total of 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and 8 CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus