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Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of calcium-dependent protein kinase and its closely related kinase genes in Capsicum annuum.

Cai H, Cheng J, Yan Y, Xiao Z, Li J, Mou S, Qiu A, Lai Y, Guan D, He S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events.Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin.Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China ; College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a genome wide comprehensive analysis of genes encoding CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs) was performed in pepper, a total of 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and 8 CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in leaves of pepper plants challenged with heat stress. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qRT-PCR.
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Figure 7: Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in leaves of pepper plants challenged with heat stress. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qRT-PCR.

Mentions: High temperature is another important abiotic stress that also exerts detrimental effects on crop growth and development and causes heavy losses in crop yield. To investigate if CDPK and CRK genes are involved in the response of pepper to heat stress, we examined their expression patterns by qRT-PCR under heat stress treatment. Out of the 35 CDPK and CRK genes, 13 CDPK and two CRK genes showed modified expression profiles in response to high temperature, suggesting that the response of pepper to high temperature may also include the reprogramming of multiple processes mediated by different CDPK and CRK genes. As showed in Figure 7, similar expression profiles among CaCDPK25, CaCDPK13, and CaCDPK5, CaCDPK30, CaCDPK23 and CaCRK3, CaCDPK18, CaCDPK20, and CaCDPK21, and between CaCDPK1 and CaCDPK4, CaCRK4, and CaCRK5, CaCDPK31, and CaCDPK17 were found in response to high temperature treatment, implying that more than one CDPK genes may act in a coordinated fashion to mediate a single process in pepper's response to high temperature stress. The results also showed that most of the high temperature-responsive CDPK genes were upregulated in response to high temperature treatment; however, the transcripts of CaCDPK18, CaCDPK20, and CaCDPK21 decreased at 2–6 hpt (hours post-treatment) and increased at 12–24 hpt, CaCRK4, and CaCRK5 were downregulated in response to high temperature treatment, suggesting that these CDPK genes are involved in the response of pepper to high temperature, acting as positive or negative regulators.


Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of calcium-dependent protein kinase and its closely related kinase genes in Capsicum annuum.

Cai H, Cheng J, Yan Y, Xiao Z, Li J, Mou S, Qiu A, Lai Y, Guan D, He S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in leaves of pepper plants challenged with heat stress. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qRT-PCR.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584942&req=5

Figure 7: Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in leaves of pepper plants challenged with heat stress. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qRT-PCR.
Mentions: High temperature is another important abiotic stress that also exerts detrimental effects on crop growth and development and causes heavy losses in crop yield. To investigate if CDPK and CRK genes are involved in the response of pepper to heat stress, we examined their expression patterns by qRT-PCR under heat stress treatment. Out of the 35 CDPK and CRK genes, 13 CDPK and two CRK genes showed modified expression profiles in response to high temperature, suggesting that the response of pepper to high temperature may also include the reprogramming of multiple processes mediated by different CDPK and CRK genes. As showed in Figure 7, similar expression profiles among CaCDPK25, CaCDPK13, and CaCDPK5, CaCDPK30, CaCDPK23 and CaCRK3, CaCDPK18, CaCDPK20, and CaCDPK21, and between CaCDPK1 and CaCDPK4, CaCRK4, and CaCRK5, CaCDPK31, and CaCDPK17 were found in response to high temperature treatment, implying that more than one CDPK genes may act in a coordinated fashion to mediate a single process in pepper's response to high temperature stress. The results also showed that most of the high temperature-responsive CDPK genes were upregulated in response to high temperature treatment; however, the transcripts of CaCDPK18, CaCDPK20, and CaCDPK21 decreased at 2–6 hpt (hours post-treatment) and increased at 12–24 hpt, CaCRK4, and CaCRK5 were downregulated in response to high temperature treatment, suggesting that these CDPK genes are involved in the response of pepper to high temperature, acting as positive or negative regulators.

Bottom Line: Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events.Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin.Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China ; College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a genome wide comprehensive analysis of genes encoding CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs) was performed in pepper, a total of 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and 8 CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus