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Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of calcium-dependent protein kinase and its closely related kinase genes in Capsicum annuum.

Cai H, Cheng J, Yan Y, Xiao Z, Li J, Mou S, Qiu A, Lai Y, Guan D, He S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events.Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin.Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China ; College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a genome wide comprehensive analysis of genes encoding CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs) was performed in pepper, a total of 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and 8 CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in the leaves of pepper plants challenged with salt stress. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qPCR.
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Figure 6: Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in the leaves of pepper plants challenged with salt stress. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qPCR.

Mentions: Salt stress is a major abiotic stress that exerts detrimental effects on crop growth and development, and causes heavy losses in crop yield. To test if CDPK genes in the pepper genome are involved in the response of pepper to salt stress, we examined the expression patterns of all the CDPKs and CRKs in pepper under salt stress treatment by qRT-PCR (Figure 6). Among the 31 CDPK and five CRK genes, 10 CDPK genes showed transcriptionally modified expression in response to salt stress, and all of the five CRK genes did not respond to salt stress. These 10 salt-responsive CDPK genes belonged to groups I (five genes), II (four genes), and III (one gene). It is noticeable that none of the salt stress-inducible CDPKs belong to group IV, suggesting that the response of pepper to salt stress might involve the reprogramming of multiple processes mediated by different CDPK genes. Similar expression profiles were found between CaCDPK6, CaCDPK12, and CaCDPK23, between CaCDPK20 and CaCDPK21, between CaCDPK11 and CaCDPK19, and between CaCDPK7 and CaCDPK25 under salt treatment, implying that multiple CDPK genes may act in a coordinated fashion to mediate the same process in pepper's response to salt stress.


Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of calcium-dependent protein kinase and its closely related kinase genes in Capsicum annuum.

Cai H, Cheng J, Yan Y, Xiao Z, Li J, Mou S, Qiu A, Lai Y, Guan D, He S - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in the leaves of pepper plants challenged with salt stress. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qPCR.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584942&req=5

Figure 6: Hierarchical clustering analyses on the relative expression of CDPK and CRK genes in the leaves of pepper plants challenged with salt stress. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data were obtained by qPCR.
Mentions: Salt stress is a major abiotic stress that exerts detrimental effects on crop growth and development, and causes heavy losses in crop yield. To test if CDPK genes in the pepper genome are involved in the response of pepper to salt stress, we examined the expression patterns of all the CDPKs and CRKs in pepper under salt stress treatment by qRT-PCR (Figure 6). Among the 31 CDPK and five CRK genes, 10 CDPK genes showed transcriptionally modified expression in response to salt stress, and all of the five CRK genes did not respond to salt stress. These 10 salt-responsive CDPK genes belonged to groups I (five genes), II (four genes), and III (one gene). It is noticeable that none of the salt stress-inducible CDPKs belong to group IV, suggesting that the response of pepper to salt stress might involve the reprogramming of multiple processes mediated by different CDPK genes. Similar expression profiles were found between CaCDPK6, CaCDPK12, and CaCDPK23, between CaCDPK20 and CaCDPK21, between CaCDPK11 and CaCDPK19, and between CaCDPK7 and CaCDPK25 under salt treatment, implying that multiple CDPK genes may act in a coordinated fashion to mediate the same process in pepper's response to salt stress.

Bottom Line: Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events.Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin.Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China ; College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a genome wide comprehensive analysis of genes encoding CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs) was performed in pepper, a total of 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and 8 CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus