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Implicit learning of predictable sound sequences modulates human brain responses at different levels of the auditory hierarchy.

Lecaignard F, Bertrand O, Gimenez G, Mattout J, Caclin A - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: We observed a decrease of the MMN with predictability and interestingly, a similar effect at earlier latencies, within 70 ms after deviance onset.Following these pre-attentive responses, a reduced P3a was measured in the case of predictable deviants.We conclude that early and late deviance responses reflect prediction errors, triggering belief updating within the auditory hierarchy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, CRNL, INSERM, U1028 - CNRS, UMR5292, Brain Dynamics and Cognition Team Lyon, France ; University Lyon 1 Lyon, France ; MEG Department, CERMEP Imaging Center Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
Deviant stimuli, violating regularities in a sensory environment, elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN), largely described in the Event-Related Potential literature. While it is widely accepted that the MMN reflects more than basic change detection, a comprehensive description of mental processes modulating this response is still lacking. Within the framework of predictive coding, deviance processing is part of an inference process where prediction errors (the mismatch between incoming sensations and predictions established through experience) are minimized. In this view, the MMN is a measure of prediction error, which yields specific expectations regarding its modulations by various experimental factors. In particular, it predicts that the MMN should decrease as the occurrence of a deviance becomes more predictable. We conducted a passive oddball EEG study and manipulated the predictability of sound sequences by means of different temporal structures. Importantly, our design allows comparing mismatch responses elicited by predictable and unpredictable violations of a simple repetition rule and therefore departs from previous studies that investigate violations of different time-scale regularities. We observed a decrease of the MMN with predictability and interestingly, a similar effect at earlier latencies, within 70 ms after deviance onset. Following these pre-attentive responses, a reduced P3a was measured in the case of predictable deviants. We conclude that early and late deviance responses reflect prediction errors, triggering belief updating within the auditory hierarchy. Beside, in this passive study, such perceptual inference appears to be modulated by higher-level implicit learning of sequence statistical structures. Our findings argue for a hierarchical model of auditory processing where predictive coding enables implicit extraction of environmental regularities.

No MeSH data available.


Predictability effect (UF vs. PF). (A) Statistical maps of the permutation tests comparing difference responses between condition UF and PF, at each electrode and each latency of the whole trial. Black and gray areas indicate significant differences (p < 0.01) resulting from whole trial [-200, 410] ms and local tests, respectively. Results revealed three intervals of significant difference: at early latencies (13 electrodes), at the latency of the MMN (15 electrodes) and at the latency of the P3a (7 electrodes). (B) Grand-average ERPs elicited by difference responses at electrode Fz in bandwidth 2–45 Hz for condition UF (red) and PF (green). Shaded areas display the windows of statistical significance (at any electrode). (C) Scalp topographies of the difference responses in bandwidth 2–45 Hz, at the latency of the predictability effect, for the early effect (left column), the MMN (middle column) and the P3a (right column), in conditions UF and PF. The range of voltage values used for the color scale is mentioned for each map.
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Figure 4: Predictability effect (UF vs. PF). (A) Statistical maps of the permutation tests comparing difference responses between condition UF and PF, at each electrode and each latency of the whole trial. Black and gray areas indicate significant differences (p < 0.01) resulting from whole trial [-200, 410] ms and local tests, respectively. Results revealed three intervals of significant difference: at early latencies (13 electrodes), at the latency of the MMN (15 electrodes) and at the latency of the P3a (7 electrodes). (B) Grand-average ERPs elicited by difference responses at electrode Fz in bandwidth 2–45 Hz for condition UF (red) and PF (green). Shaded areas display the windows of statistical significance (at any electrode). (C) Scalp topographies of the difference responses in bandwidth 2–45 Hz, at the latency of the predictability effect, for the early effect (left column), the MMN (middle column) and the P3a (right column), in conditions UF and PF. The range of voltage values used for the color scale is mentioned for each map.

Mentions: Figure 4 displays difference responses for conditions UF and PF at electrode Fz, as well as scalp topographies of the double difference waveforms (UF difference response – PF difference response). The effect of predictability was first assessed by comparing the difference responses obtained with the predictable and unpredictable sequences (PF vs. UF). Second, in order to disentangle the relative contribution of standard and deviant stimuli, we further assessed the effect of predictability on those two responses, separately.


Implicit learning of predictable sound sequences modulates human brain responses at different levels of the auditory hierarchy.

Lecaignard F, Bertrand O, Gimenez G, Mattout J, Caclin A - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Predictability effect (UF vs. PF). (A) Statistical maps of the permutation tests comparing difference responses between condition UF and PF, at each electrode and each latency of the whole trial. Black and gray areas indicate significant differences (p < 0.01) resulting from whole trial [-200, 410] ms and local tests, respectively. Results revealed three intervals of significant difference: at early latencies (13 electrodes), at the latency of the MMN (15 electrodes) and at the latency of the P3a (7 electrodes). (B) Grand-average ERPs elicited by difference responses at electrode Fz in bandwidth 2–45 Hz for condition UF (red) and PF (green). Shaded areas display the windows of statistical significance (at any electrode). (C) Scalp topographies of the difference responses in bandwidth 2–45 Hz, at the latency of the predictability effect, for the early effect (left column), the MMN (middle column) and the P3a (right column), in conditions UF and PF. The range of voltage values used for the color scale is mentioned for each map.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584941&req=5

Figure 4: Predictability effect (UF vs. PF). (A) Statistical maps of the permutation tests comparing difference responses between condition UF and PF, at each electrode and each latency of the whole trial. Black and gray areas indicate significant differences (p < 0.01) resulting from whole trial [-200, 410] ms and local tests, respectively. Results revealed three intervals of significant difference: at early latencies (13 electrodes), at the latency of the MMN (15 electrodes) and at the latency of the P3a (7 electrodes). (B) Grand-average ERPs elicited by difference responses at electrode Fz in bandwidth 2–45 Hz for condition UF (red) and PF (green). Shaded areas display the windows of statistical significance (at any electrode). (C) Scalp topographies of the difference responses in bandwidth 2–45 Hz, at the latency of the predictability effect, for the early effect (left column), the MMN (middle column) and the P3a (right column), in conditions UF and PF. The range of voltage values used for the color scale is mentioned for each map.
Mentions: Figure 4 displays difference responses for conditions UF and PF at electrode Fz, as well as scalp topographies of the double difference waveforms (UF difference response – PF difference response). The effect of predictability was first assessed by comparing the difference responses obtained with the predictable and unpredictable sequences (PF vs. UF). Second, in order to disentangle the relative contribution of standard and deviant stimuli, we further assessed the effect of predictability on those two responses, separately.

Bottom Line: We observed a decrease of the MMN with predictability and interestingly, a similar effect at earlier latencies, within 70 ms after deviance onset.Following these pre-attentive responses, a reduced P3a was measured in the case of predictable deviants.We conclude that early and late deviance responses reflect prediction errors, triggering belief updating within the auditory hierarchy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, CRNL, INSERM, U1028 - CNRS, UMR5292, Brain Dynamics and Cognition Team Lyon, France ; University Lyon 1 Lyon, France ; MEG Department, CERMEP Imaging Center Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
Deviant stimuli, violating regularities in a sensory environment, elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN), largely described in the Event-Related Potential literature. While it is widely accepted that the MMN reflects more than basic change detection, a comprehensive description of mental processes modulating this response is still lacking. Within the framework of predictive coding, deviance processing is part of an inference process where prediction errors (the mismatch between incoming sensations and predictions established through experience) are minimized. In this view, the MMN is a measure of prediction error, which yields specific expectations regarding its modulations by various experimental factors. In particular, it predicts that the MMN should decrease as the occurrence of a deviance becomes more predictable. We conducted a passive oddball EEG study and manipulated the predictability of sound sequences by means of different temporal structures. Importantly, our design allows comparing mismatch responses elicited by predictable and unpredictable violations of a simple repetition rule and therefore departs from previous studies that investigate violations of different time-scale regularities. We observed a decrease of the MMN with predictability and interestingly, a similar effect at earlier latencies, within 70 ms after deviance onset. Following these pre-attentive responses, a reduced P3a was measured in the case of predictable deviants. We conclude that early and late deviance responses reflect prediction errors, triggering belief updating within the auditory hierarchy. Beside, in this passive study, such perceptual inference appears to be modulated by higher-level implicit learning of sequence statistical structures. Our findings argue for a hierarchical model of auditory processing where predictive coding enables implicit extraction of environmental regularities.

No MeSH data available.