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Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality.

Arslan S, Bastiaanse R, Felser C - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well.The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data.Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: International Doctorate for Experimental Approaches to Language and Brain, University of Groningen Groningen, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual 'evidence' supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Examples of visual displays appeared in three different conditions: (A) – direct evidential, (B) – indirect evidential, (C) – future tense. ©Roelien Bastiaanse, University Groningen.
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Figure 1: Examples of visual displays appeared in three different conditions: (A) – direct evidential, (B) – indirect evidential, (C) – future tense. ©Roelien Bastiaanse, University Groningen.

Mentions: Sixty visual displays, each comprising a pair of photos presented next to each other, were created as shown in Figure 1. One of the photos was the target picture and the other one served as a context picture. To create the visual displays, 20 action verbs were combined with six different people and 10 different inanimate objects (i.e., süt içmek ‘to drink milk’). The same actions were displayed in two experimental conditions, a direct and an indirect evidential one, as well as in a non-evidential distractor condition involving the future tense (n = 20 each). The photographs used in this experiment were taken from European, Asian, and African versions of the Test for Assessing Reference of Time: TART (Bastiaanse et al., 2008). Different ‘models’ from different versions of TART were used with the same action displayed in different conditions in a counterbalanced manner. For example, drinking milk appeared once in the direct evidential condition acted by a European-looking person, once in the indirect evidential condition acted by a person of Asian appearance, and once in the future tense condition acted by a person of African appearance as shown in Figure 1. An equal number of male and female ‘models’ appeared in each condition.


Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality.

Arslan S, Bastiaanse R, Felser C - Front Psychol (2015)

Examples of visual displays appeared in three different conditions: (A) – direct evidential, (B) – indirect evidential, (C) – future tense. ©Roelien Bastiaanse, University Groningen.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584937&req=5

Figure 1: Examples of visual displays appeared in three different conditions: (A) – direct evidential, (B) – indirect evidential, (C) – future tense. ©Roelien Bastiaanse, University Groningen.
Mentions: Sixty visual displays, each comprising a pair of photos presented next to each other, were created as shown in Figure 1. One of the photos was the target picture and the other one served as a context picture. To create the visual displays, 20 action verbs were combined with six different people and 10 different inanimate objects (i.e., süt içmek ‘to drink milk’). The same actions were displayed in two experimental conditions, a direct and an indirect evidential one, as well as in a non-evidential distractor condition involving the future tense (n = 20 each). The photographs used in this experiment were taken from European, Asian, and African versions of the Test for Assessing Reference of Time: TART (Bastiaanse et al., 2008). Different ‘models’ from different versions of TART were used with the same action displayed in different conditions in a counterbalanced manner. For example, drinking milk appeared once in the direct evidential condition acted by a European-looking person, once in the indirect evidential condition acted by a person of Asian appearance, and once in the future tense condition acted by a person of African appearance as shown in Figure 1. An equal number of male and female ‘models’ appeared in each condition.

Bottom Line: The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well.The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data.Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: International Doctorate for Experimental Approaches to Language and Brain, University of Groningen Groningen, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual 'evidence' supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus