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Spatiotemporal trends in the discovery of new swine infectious agents.

Fournié G, Kearsley-Fleet L, Otte J, Pfeiffer DU - Vet. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: These new species, of which one third was zoonotic, were taxonomically diverse.They were identified throughout the study period, predominantly in the main pork producing countries, with the rate of discovery of new virus variants doubling within the last 10 years of the study period.This information then needs to inform the design of risk-based surveillance systems and strategies directly mitigating the risk associated with these factors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Production and Population Health, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK. gfournie@rvc.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
A literature review was conducted to assess the spatiotemporal trend and diversity of infectious agents that were newly found in pigs between 1985 and 2010. We identified 173 new variants from 91 species, of which 73 species had not been previously described in pigs. These new species, of which one third was zoonotic, were taxonomically diverse. They were identified throughout the study period, predominantly in the main pork producing countries, with the rate of discovery of new virus variants doubling within the last 10 years of the study period. Whilst infectious agent species newly detected in high-income countries were more likely to be associated with higher virulence, zoonotic agents prevailed in low- and middle-income countries. Although this trend is influenced by factors conditioning infectious agent detection - diagnostic methods, surveillance efforts, research interests -, it may suggest that different scales and types of production systems promote emergence of certain types of infectious agents. Considering the rapid transformation of the swine industry, concerted efforts are needed for improving our understanding of the factors influencing the emergence of infectious agents. This information then needs to inform the design of risk-based surveillance systems and strategies directly mitigating the risk associated with these factors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Number of novel infectious agent variants and species by country. The number of novel variants (dots) and species (bars) is shown for each country. Countries are arranged in descending order of pig production [1]. The cumulative distributions of new infectious agent variants (dotted line), species (dashed line) and of pig production (solid line) are presented.
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Fig3: Number of novel infectious agent variants and species by country. The number of novel variants (dots) and species (bars) is shown for each country. Countries are arranged in descending order of pig production [1]. The cumulative distributions of new infectious agent variants (dotted line), species (dashed line) and of pig production (solid line) are presented.

Mentions: Western Europe, North America, Australia and East and South-East Asia accounted for 87% and 86% of all new infectious agent variants and species, respectively. New variants originated in 34 countries and new species in 25, with 58% and 62% of these variants and species having originated in only 7 countries, namely Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America (Additional file 4). Countries where new species were reported were also the largest pig meat producers. The top 20% of pig meat-producing countries (based on average pig meat production between 1985 and 2010 [1]) accounted for 92% of global pig meat production, and for 86% and 81% of novel infectious agent variants and species over the study period (Figure 3). Of the 50 largest pig meat producing countries in 1985, 17 have increased their production by more than 50%, up to 440%, in 2010 [1]. At least one novel species was discovered in 11 (65%) of these 17 countries over the study period, and in only 9 (27%) of the other 33 countries. Likewise, at least one novel variant was discovered in 14 (82%) of these 17 countries, and in only 15 (45%) of the other 33.Figure 3


Spatiotemporal trends in the discovery of new swine infectious agents.

Fournié G, Kearsley-Fleet L, Otte J, Pfeiffer DU - Vet. Res. (2015)

Number of novel infectious agent variants and species by country. The number of novel variants (dots) and species (bars) is shown for each country. Countries are arranged in descending order of pig production [1]. The cumulative distributions of new infectious agent variants (dotted line), species (dashed line) and of pig production (solid line) are presented.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584486&req=5

Fig3: Number of novel infectious agent variants and species by country. The number of novel variants (dots) and species (bars) is shown for each country. Countries are arranged in descending order of pig production [1]. The cumulative distributions of new infectious agent variants (dotted line), species (dashed line) and of pig production (solid line) are presented.
Mentions: Western Europe, North America, Australia and East and South-East Asia accounted for 87% and 86% of all new infectious agent variants and species, respectively. New variants originated in 34 countries and new species in 25, with 58% and 62% of these variants and species having originated in only 7 countries, namely Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America (Additional file 4). Countries where new species were reported were also the largest pig meat producers. The top 20% of pig meat-producing countries (based on average pig meat production between 1985 and 2010 [1]) accounted for 92% of global pig meat production, and for 86% and 81% of novel infectious agent variants and species over the study period (Figure 3). Of the 50 largest pig meat producing countries in 1985, 17 have increased their production by more than 50%, up to 440%, in 2010 [1]. At least one novel species was discovered in 11 (65%) of these 17 countries over the study period, and in only 9 (27%) of the other 33 countries. Likewise, at least one novel variant was discovered in 14 (82%) of these 17 countries, and in only 15 (45%) of the other 33.Figure 3

Bottom Line: These new species, of which one third was zoonotic, were taxonomically diverse.They were identified throughout the study period, predominantly in the main pork producing countries, with the rate of discovery of new virus variants doubling within the last 10 years of the study period.This information then needs to inform the design of risk-based surveillance systems and strategies directly mitigating the risk associated with these factors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Production and Population Health, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK. gfournie@rvc.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
A literature review was conducted to assess the spatiotemporal trend and diversity of infectious agents that were newly found in pigs between 1985 and 2010. We identified 173 new variants from 91 species, of which 73 species had not been previously described in pigs. These new species, of which one third was zoonotic, were taxonomically diverse. They were identified throughout the study period, predominantly in the main pork producing countries, with the rate of discovery of new virus variants doubling within the last 10 years of the study period. Whilst infectious agent species newly detected in high-income countries were more likely to be associated with higher virulence, zoonotic agents prevailed in low- and middle-income countries. Although this trend is influenced by factors conditioning infectious agent detection - diagnostic methods, surveillance efforts, research interests -, it may suggest that different scales and types of production systems promote emergence of certain types of infectious agents. Considering the rapid transformation of the swine industry, concerted efforts are needed for improving our understanding of the factors influencing the emergence of infectious agents. This information then needs to inform the design of risk-based surveillance systems and strategies directly mitigating the risk associated with these factors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus