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Spatiotemporal trends in the discovery of new swine infectious agents.

Fournié G, Kearsley-Fleet L, Otte J, Pfeiffer DU - Vet. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: These new species, of which one third was zoonotic, were taxonomically diverse.They were identified throughout the study period, predominantly in the main pork producing countries, with the rate of discovery of new virus variants doubling within the last 10 years of the study period.This information then needs to inform the design of risk-based surveillance systems and strategies directly mitigating the risk associated with these factors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Production and Population Health, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK. gfournie@rvc.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
A literature review was conducted to assess the spatiotemporal trend and diversity of infectious agents that were newly found in pigs between 1985 and 2010. We identified 173 new variants from 91 species, of which 73 species had not been previously described in pigs. These new species, of which one third was zoonotic, were taxonomically diverse. They were identified throughout the study period, predominantly in the main pork producing countries, with the rate of discovery of new virus variants doubling within the last 10 years of the study period. Whilst infectious agent species newly detected in high-income countries were more likely to be associated with higher virulence, zoonotic agents prevailed in low- and middle-income countries. Although this trend is influenced by factors conditioning infectious agent detection - diagnostic methods, surveillance efforts, research interests -, it may suggest that different scales and types of production systems promote emergence of certain types of infectious agents. Considering the rapid transformation of the swine industry, concerted efforts are needed for improving our understanding of the factors influencing the emergence of infectious agents. This information then needs to inform the design of risk-based surveillance systems and strategies directly mitigating the risk associated with these factors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Evolution of pig meat production as a function of time. Annual pig production is expressed in tonnes for each country, or group of countries [1].
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Fig1: Evolution of pig meat production as a function of time. Annual pig production is expressed in tonnes for each country, or group of countries [1].

Mentions: To meet an increasing demand for meat and meat products, the global pig production sector has experienced rapid growth over the last decades. From 1985 to 2010, global pork production has increased by 80% and become the main meat production sector [1]. The expansion was particularly marked in China (Figure 1) which now accounts for around 50% of the global pig production [1]. This rapid growth was associated with an intensification of production and major transformation of associated value chains. Intensive farms, where large numbers of pigs are kept at high density and raised with a high population turn-over, are often located in areas with high pig farm and pig density [2]. It has been suggested that such high geographical concentration and housing density of domestic animals may allow pathogens to be amplified and to spread rapidly between herds (or flocks) [3-5], resulting in large outbreaks, the mitigation of which requires costly interventions. Novel infectious agents of pigs arising from or being introduced into such areas may therefore cause substantial economic losses, as well as jeopardize food security in affected countries. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and post-weaning multisystemic syndrome (PMWS) are examples of newly emerged infectious agents which are amongst the swine diseases associated with the highest economic losses since 1985 [6,7].Figure 1


Spatiotemporal trends in the discovery of new swine infectious agents.

Fournié G, Kearsley-Fleet L, Otte J, Pfeiffer DU - Vet. Res. (2015)

Evolution of pig meat production as a function of time. Annual pig production is expressed in tonnes for each country, or group of countries [1].
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584486&req=5

Fig1: Evolution of pig meat production as a function of time. Annual pig production is expressed in tonnes for each country, or group of countries [1].
Mentions: To meet an increasing demand for meat and meat products, the global pig production sector has experienced rapid growth over the last decades. From 1985 to 2010, global pork production has increased by 80% and become the main meat production sector [1]. The expansion was particularly marked in China (Figure 1) which now accounts for around 50% of the global pig production [1]. This rapid growth was associated with an intensification of production and major transformation of associated value chains. Intensive farms, where large numbers of pigs are kept at high density and raised with a high population turn-over, are often located in areas with high pig farm and pig density [2]. It has been suggested that such high geographical concentration and housing density of domestic animals may allow pathogens to be amplified and to spread rapidly between herds (or flocks) [3-5], resulting in large outbreaks, the mitigation of which requires costly interventions. Novel infectious agents of pigs arising from or being introduced into such areas may therefore cause substantial economic losses, as well as jeopardize food security in affected countries. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and post-weaning multisystemic syndrome (PMWS) are examples of newly emerged infectious agents which are amongst the swine diseases associated with the highest economic losses since 1985 [6,7].Figure 1

Bottom Line: These new species, of which one third was zoonotic, were taxonomically diverse.They were identified throughout the study period, predominantly in the main pork producing countries, with the rate of discovery of new virus variants doubling within the last 10 years of the study period.This information then needs to inform the design of risk-based surveillance systems and strategies directly mitigating the risk associated with these factors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Production and Population Health, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK. gfournie@rvc.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
A literature review was conducted to assess the spatiotemporal trend and diversity of infectious agents that were newly found in pigs between 1985 and 2010. We identified 173 new variants from 91 species, of which 73 species had not been previously described in pigs. These new species, of which one third was zoonotic, were taxonomically diverse. They were identified throughout the study period, predominantly in the main pork producing countries, with the rate of discovery of new virus variants doubling within the last 10 years of the study period. Whilst infectious agent species newly detected in high-income countries were more likely to be associated with higher virulence, zoonotic agents prevailed in low- and middle-income countries. Although this trend is influenced by factors conditioning infectious agent detection - diagnostic methods, surveillance efforts, research interests -, it may suggest that different scales and types of production systems promote emergence of certain types of infectious agents. Considering the rapid transformation of the swine industry, concerted efforts are needed for improving our understanding of the factors influencing the emergence of infectious agents. This information then needs to inform the design of risk-based surveillance systems and strategies directly mitigating the risk associated with these factors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus