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Immunization routes in cattle impact the levels and neutralizing capacity of antibodies induced against S. aureus immune evasion proteins.

Boerhout E, Vrieling M, Benedictus L, Daemen I, Ravesloot L, Rutten V, Nuijten P, van Strijp J, Koets A, Eisenberg S - Vet. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: It is unknown, however, whether this route is the most suitable to specifically increase intramammary immunity to combat S. aureus at the site of infection.The experimental vaccine comprised the recombinant S. aureus immune evasion proteins extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) and the leukotoxin subunit LukM in an oil-in-water adjuvant combined with a hydrogel and alginate.Furthermore, the harmful effects of Efb and leukotoxin LukMF' on host-defense were neutralized by serum antibodies in a route-dependent manner.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ruminant Research and Development, MSD Animal Health, Wim de Körverstraat 35, 5830, AA, Boxmeer, The Netherlands. eveline.boerhout@merck.com.

ABSTRACT
Vaccines against S. aureus bovine mastitis are scarce and show limited protection only. All currently available vaccines are applied via the parenteral (usually intramuscular) route. It is unknown, however, whether this route is the most suitable to specifically increase intramammary immunity to combat S. aureus at the site of infection. Hence, in the present study, immunization via mucosal (intranasal; IN), intramuscular (triangle of the neck; IM), intramammary (IMM) and subcutaneous (suspensory ligament; SC) routes were analyzed for their effects on the quantity of the antibody responses in serum and milk as well as the neutralizing capacity of the antibodies within serum. The experimental vaccine comprised the recombinant S. aureus immune evasion proteins extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) and the leukotoxin subunit LukM in an oil-in-water adjuvant combined with a hydrogel and alginate. The highest titer increases for both Efb and LukM specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody levels in serum and milk were observed following SC/SC immunizations. Furthermore, the harmful effects of Efb and leukotoxin LukMF' on host-defense were neutralized by serum antibodies in a route-dependent manner. SC/SC immunization resulted in a significant increase in the neutralizing capacity of serum antibodies towards Efb and LukMF', shown by increased phagocytosis of S. aureus and increased viability of bovine leukocytes. Therefore, a SC immunization route should be considered when aiming to optimize humoral immunity against S. aureus mastitis in cattle.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Efb neutralization assay. The presence of Efb neutralizing antibodies in serum of cows from different immunization groups were analyzed in an Efb neutralization assay. For each cow, the phagocytosis ratio between post- and pre-immunization serum was calculated from four independent neutralization experiments. Results are expressed as the mean ratio per group ± SEM. Differences in neutralization ratios between groups were calculated using the One-way ANOVA. *p < 0.05.
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Fig3: Efb neutralization assay. The presence of Efb neutralizing antibodies in serum of cows from different immunization groups were analyzed in an Efb neutralization assay. For each cow, the phagocytosis ratio between post- and pre-immunization serum was calculated from four independent neutralization experiments. Results are expressed as the mean ratio per group ± SEM. Differences in neutralization ratios between groups were calculated using the One-way ANOVA. *p < 0.05.

Mentions: Antibodies within serum were tested for their ability to neutralize the inhibitory effects of Efb on phagocytosis. Figure 3 shows the differences in phagocytosis ratios of post- and pre-immunization serum. IM/IM and IMM/SC immunizations did not result in increased phagocytosis indicating that the induction of Efb neutralizing antibodies was limited. Only one cow immunized via IN/IN administration showed an increased percentage of phagocytosis post-immunization. In contrast, all SC/SC immunized animals showed an increase in neutralizing antibodies post-immunization. The increase in the Efb neutralizing capacity of serum antibodies was significantly higher following SC/SC immunization than after IM/IM and IMM/SC immunization (p = 0.015 for both groups).Figure 3


Immunization routes in cattle impact the levels and neutralizing capacity of antibodies induced against S. aureus immune evasion proteins.

Boerhout E, Vrieling M, Benedictus L, Daemen I, Ravesloot L, Rutten V, Nuijten P, van Strijp J, Koets A, Eisenberg S - Vet. Res. (2015)

Efb neutralization assay. The presence of Efb neutralizing antibodies in serum of cows from different immunization groups were analyzed in an Efb neutralization assay. For each cow, the phagocytosis ratio between post- and pre-immunization serum was calculated from four independent neutralization experiments. Results are expressed as the mean ratio per group ± SEM. Differences in neutralization ratios between groups were calculated using the One-way ANOVA. *p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584483&req=5

Fig3: Efb neutralization assay. The presence of Efb neutralizing antibodies in serum of cows from different immunization groups were analyzed in an Efb neutralization assay. For each cow, the phagocytosis ratio between post- and pre-immunization serum was calculated from four independent neutralization experiments. Results are expressed as the mean ratio per group ± SEM. Differences in neutralization ratios between groups were calculated using the One-way ANOVA. *p < 0.05.
Mentions: Antibodies within serum were tested for their ability to neutralize the inhibitory effects of Efb on phagocytosis. Figure 3 shows the differences in phagocytosis ratios of post- and pre-immunization serum. IM/IM and IMM/SC immunizations did not result in increased phagocytosis indicating that the induction of Efb neutralizing antibodies was limited. Only one cow immunized via IN/IN administration showed an increased percentage of phagocytosis post-immunization. In contrast, all SC/SC immunized animals showed an increase in neutralizing antibodies post-immunization. The increase in the Efb neutralizing capacity of serum antibodies was significantly higher following SC/SC immunization than after IM/IM and IMM/SC immunization (p = 0.015 for both groups).Figure 3

Bottom Line: It is unknown, however, whether this route is the most suitable to specifically increase intramammary immunity to combat S. aureus at the site of infection.The experimental vaccine comprised the recombinant S. aureus immune evasion proteins extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) and the leukotoxin subunit LukM in an oil-in-water adjuvant combined with a hydrogel and alginate.Furthermore, the harmful effects of Efb and leukotoxin LukMF' on host-defense were neutralized by serum antibodies in a route-dependent manner.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ruminant Research and Development, MSD Animal Health, Wim de Körverstraat 35, 5830, AA, Boxmeer, The Netherlands. eveline.boerhout@merck.com.

ABSTRACT
Vaccines against S. aureus bovine mastitis are scarce and show limited protection only. All currently available vaccines are applied via the parenteral (usually intramuscular) route. It is unknown, however, whether this route is the most suitable to specifically increase intramammary immunity to combat S. aureus at the site of infection. Hence, in the present study, immunization via mucosal (intranasal; IN), intramuscular (triangle of the neck; IM), intramammary (IMM) and subcutaneous (suspensory ligament; SC) routes were analyzed for their effects on the quantity of the antibody responses in serum and milk as well as the neutralizing capacity of the antibodies within serum. The experimental vaccine comprised the recombinant S. aureus immune evasion proteins extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) and the leukotoxin subunit LukM in an oil-in-water adjuvant combined with a hydrogel and alginate. The highest titer increases for both Efb and LukM specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody levels in serum and milk were observed following SC/SC immunizations. Furthermore, the harmful effects of Efb and leukotoxin LukMF' on host-defense were neutralized by serum antibodies in a route-dependent manner. SC/SC immunization resulted in a significant increase in the neutralizing capacity of serum antibodies towards Efb and LukMF', shown by increased phagocytosis of S. aureus and increased viability of bovine leukocytes. Therefore, a SC immunization route should be considered when aiming to optimize humoral immunity against S. aureus mastitis in cattle.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus