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Wild bird surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 in North America.

Flint PL, Pearce JM, Franson JC, Derksen DV - Virol. J. (2015)

Bottom Line: It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America.We also suggest that sampling be focused on regions with the greatest risk for poultry losses and attempt to define the mechanisms of transfer to enhance biosecurity.Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK, USA. pflint@usgs.gov.

ABSTRACT
It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America. Wild birds harbor these viruses and have dispersed them at regional scales. What is unclear is how the viruses may be moving from the wild bird reservoir into poultry holdings. Active surveillance of live wild birds is likely the best way to determine the true distribution of these viruses. We also suggest that sampling be focused on regions with the greatest risk for poultry losses and attempt to define the mechanisms of transfer to enhance biosecurity. Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Poultry sales in 2012 by state in relation to major waterfowl flyways in North America. Poultry sales (layers, pullets, broilers, turkeys) as an index of density can be used to stratify wild bird surveillance sampling during the non-breeding season. This approach would target sampling in locations where the greatest risk of economic damage could occur. Sampling at high latitudes during the breeding season when populations from the various flyways (including Asian flyways) overlap can identify the potential for spread among the flyways. Poultry data from the 2012 Census of Agriculture [13]
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Fig2: Poultry sales in 2012 by state in relation to major waterfowl flyways in North America. Poultry sales (layers, pullets, broilers, turkeys) as an index of density can be used to stratify wild bird surveillance sampling during the non-breeding season. This approach would target sampling in locations where the greatest risk of economic damage could occur. Sampling at high latitudes during the breeding season when populations from the various flyways (including Asian flyways) overlap can identify the potential for spread among the flyways. Poultry data from the 2012 Census of Agriculture [13]

Mentions: As more is learned about the epizootiology of HPAI H5 viruses, surveillance techniques in North America and elsewhere can be tailored to optimize detection. Furthermore, the HPAI situation in North America presents an opportunity to investigate the potential movement of these viruses among wild birds and poultry facilities. At this time, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers the risk posed to human health by the HPAI H5 viruses found in wild birds and poultry in North America to be low [32]. Yet, these viruses pose substantial risk to the commercial poultry industry where losses have significant economic impacts. Therefore, a tiered sampling approach in response to HPAI H5 viruses currently circulating in North America may be the most efficient surveillance strategy. Such an approach would allow sampling to be segregated seasonally and geographically, and targeted based on risk. Machalaba et al. [31] noted that high latitude sampling associated with breeding areas seem to indicate relative “hotspots” for AI. These high latitude areas also occur in regions where birds from multiple flyways overlap creating the potential for broad scale dispersal of viruses along an East-West gradient (Fig. 2) [7]. Thus, breeding season sampling would focus on higher latitude areas and assess the risk for spread across flyways. Wild bird surveillance sampling outside of the breeding season could incorporate a risk-based approach by focusing in areas with the highest density of poultry (Fig. 2), with stratification at multiple levels (flyway, state, and county). Retrospective studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of AI outbreaks in poultry increased with proximity to wetlands [32–34]. Thus, habitat mapping could be used to target sampling at farms with the greatest risk.Fig. 2


Wild bird surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 in North America.

Flint PL, Pearce JM, Franson JC, Derksen DV - Virol. J. (2015)

Poultry sales in 2012 by state in relation to major waterfowl flyways in North America. Poultry sales (layers, pullets, broilers, turkeys) as an index of density can be used to stratify wild bird surveillance sampling during the non-breeding season. This approach would target sampling in locations where the greatest risk of economic damage could occur. Sampling at high latitudes during the breeding season when populations from the various flyways (including Asian flyways) overlap can identify the potential for spread among the flyways. Poultry data from the 2012 Census of Agriculture [13]
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584468&req=5

Fig2: Poultry sales in 2012 by state in relation to major waterfowl flyways in North America. Poultry sales (layers, pullets, broilers, turkeys) as an index of density can be used to stratify wild bird surveillance sampling during the non-breeding season. This approach would target sampling in locations where the greatest risk of economic damage could occur. Sampling at high latitudes during the breeding season when populations from the various flyways (including Asian flyways) overlap can identify the potential for spread among the flyways. Poultry data from the 2012 Census of Agriculture [13]
Mentions: As more is learned about the epizootiology of HPAI H5 viruses, surveillance techniques in North America and elsewhere can be tailored to optimize detection. Furthermore, the HPAI situation in North America presents an opportunity to investigate the potential movement of these viruses among wild birds and poultry facilities. At this time, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers the risk posed to human health by the HPAI H5 viruses found in wild birds and poultry in North America to be low [32]. Yet, these viruses pose substantial risk to the commercial poultry industry where losses have significant economic impacts. Therefore, a tiered sampling approach in response to HPAI H5 viruses currently circulating in North America may be the most efficient surveillance strategy. Such an approach would allow sampling to be segregated seasonally and geographically, and targeted based on risk. Machalaba et al. [31] noted that high latitude sampling associated with breeding areas seem to indicate relative “hotspots” for AI. These high latitude areas also occur in regions where birds from multiple flyways overlap creating the potential for broad scale dispersal of viruses along an East-West gradient (Fig. 2) [7]. Thus, breeding season sampling would focus on higher latitude areas and assess the risk for spread across flyways. Wild bird surveillance sampling outside of the breeding season could incorporate a risk-based approach by focusing in areas with the highest density of poultry (Fig. 2), with stratification at multiple levels (flyway, state, and county). Retrospective studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of AI outbreaks in poultry increased with proximity to wetlands [32–34]. Thus, habitat mapping could be used to target sampling at farms with the greatest risk.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America.We also suggest that sampling be focused on regions with the greatest risk for poultry losses and attempt to define the mechanisms of transfer to enhance biosecurity.Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK, USA. pflint@usgs.gov.

ABSTRACT
It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America. Wild birds harbor these viruses and have dispersed them at regional scales. What is unclear is how the viruses may be moving from the wild bird reservoir into poultry holdings. Active surveillance of live wild birds is likely the best way to determine the true distribution of these viruses. We also suggest that sampling be focused on regions with the greatest risk for poultry losses and attempt to define the mechanisms of transfer to enhance biosecurity. Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus