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Mitigation of statins-induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction by L-carnitine in freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes.

Abdoli N, Azarmi Y, Eghbal MA - Res Pharm Sci (2015 Mar-Apr)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, the effects of statins on cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione reservoirs were evaluated.Moreover, a decrease in cellular reduced glutathione level and cellular mitochondrial membrane potential collapse occurred.The mechanism of L-carnitine protection may be related to its capacity to facilitate fatty acid entry into mitochondria; possibly adenosine tri-phosphate or the reducing equivalents are increased, and the toxic effects of statins toward mitochondria are encountered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, I.R. Iran ; Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, I.R. Iran ; Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, School of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, I.R. Iran ; Students Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, I.R. Iran.

ABSTRACT
Statins are widely used as anti hyperlipidemic agents. Hepatotoxicity is one of their adverse effects appearing in some patients. No protective agents have yet been developed to treat statins-induced hepatotoxicity. Different investigations have suggested L-carnitine as a hepatoprotective agent against drugs-induced toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine on the cytotoxic effects of statins on the freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats by collagenase enzyme perfusion via portal vein. Cells were treated with the different concentrations of statins (simvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin), alone or in combination with L-carnitine. Cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarization were assessed as toxicity markers. Furthermore, the effects of statins on cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione reservoirs were evaluated. In accordance with previous studies, an elevation in ROS formation, cellular oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation were observed after statins administration. Moreover, a decrease in cellular reduced glutathione level and cellular mitochondrial membrane potential collapse occurred. L-carnitine co-administration decreased the intensity of aforementioned toxicity markers produced by statins treatment. This study suggests the protective role of L-carnitine against statins-induced cellular damage probably through its anti oxidative and reactive radical scavenging properties as well as its effects on sub cellular components such as mitochondria. The mechanism of L-carnitine protection may be related to its capacity to facilitate fatty acid entry into mitochondria; possibly adenosine tri-phosphate or the reducing equivalents are increased, and the toxic effects of statins toward mitochondria are encountered.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Reactive oxygen species formation after statin and L-carnitine administration to isolated rat hepatocytes. A; atorvastatin, B; simvastatin, C; lovastatin. The fluorescent activity of dichlorofluorescin, which is directly linked to the amount of reactive oxygen species, was measured at different time points. Data are given as mean ± SEM for three experiments. ***; Significant as compared to control group (P<0.001). **; Significant as compared to statins-treated group (P<0.01). *; Significant as compared to statins-treated group (P<0.05). The sole administration of L-carnitine did not cause any toxicity toward rat hepatocytes at mentioned concentration.
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Figure 1: Reactive oxygen species formation after statin and L-carnitine administration to isolated rat hepatocytes. A; atorvastatin, B; simvastatin, C; lovastatin. The fluorescent activity of dichlorofluorescin, which is directly linked to the amount of reactive oxygen species, was measured at different time points. Data are given as mean ± SEM for three experiments. ***; Significant as compared to control group (P<0.001). **; Significant as compared to statins-treated group (P<0.01). *; Significant as compared to statins-treated group (P<0.05). The sole administration of L-carnitine did not cause any toxicity toward rat hepatocytes at mentioned concentration.

Mentions: Statins caused formation of a considerable amount of ROS in isolated rat hepatocytes (Fig. 1). L-carnitine administration limited the effect of statins on ROS formation (Fig. 1) and its consequences such as lipid peroxidation (Fig. 2). Treatment with L-carnitine, in addition to decreasing the formation of free radicals (Fig. 1), significantly increased the GSH levels (Fig. 3). Moreover, the level of GSSG was decreased after L-carnitine administration in comparison with the statin-treated groups (Fig. 4).


Mitigation of statins-induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction by L-carnitine in freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes.

Abdoli N, Azarmi Y, Eghbal MA - Res Pharm Sci (2015 Mar-Apr)

Reactive oxygen species formation after statin and L-carnitine administration to isolated rat hepatocytes. A; atorvastatin, B; simvastatin, C; lovastatin. The fluorescent activity of dichlorofluorescin, which is directly linked to the amount of reactive oxygen species, was measured at different time points. Data are given as mean ± SEM for three experiments. ***; Significant as compared to control group (P<0.001). **; Significant as compared to statins-treated group (P<0.01). *; Significant as compared to statins-treated group (P<0.05). The sole administration of L-carnitine did not cause any toxicity toward rat hepatocytes at mentioned concentration.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584453&req=5

Figure 1: Reactive oxygen species formation after statin and L-carnitine administration to isolated rat hepatocytes. A; atorvastatin, B; simvastatin, C; lovastatin. The fluorescent activity of dichlorofluorescin, which is directly linked to the amount of reactive oxygen species, was measured at different time points. Data are given as mean ± SEM for three experiments. ***; Significant as compared to control group (P<0.001). **; Significant as compared to statins-treated group (P<0.01). *; Significant as compared to statins-treated group (P<0.05). The sole administration of L-carnitine did not cause any toxicity toward rat hepatocytes at mentioned concentration.
Mentions: Statins caused formation of a considerable amount of ROS in isolated rat hepatocytes (Fig. 1). L-carnitine administration limited the effect of statins on ROS formation (Fig. 1) and its consequences such as lipid peroxidation (Fig. 2). Treatment with L-carnitine, in addition to decreasing the formation of free radicals (Fig. 1), significantly increased the GSH levels (Fig. 3). Moreover, the level of GSSG was decreased after L-carnitine administration in comparison with the statin-treated groups (Fig. 4).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, the effects of statins on cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione reservoirs were evaluated.Moreover, a decrease in cellular reduced glutathione level and cellular mitochondrial membrane potential collapse occurred.The mechanism of L-carnitine protection may be related to its capacity to facilitate fatty acid entry into mitochondria; possibly adenosine tri-phosphate or the reducing equivalents are increased, and the toxic effects of statins toward mitochondria are encountered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, I.R. Iran ; Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, I.R. Iran ; Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, School of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, I.R. Iran ; Students Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, I.R. Iran.

ABSTRACT
Statins are widely used as anti hyperlipidemic agents. Hepatotoxicity is one of their adverse effects appearing in some patients. No protective agents have yet been developed to treat statins-induced hepatotoxicity. Different investigations have suggested L-carnitine as a hepatoprotective agent against drugs-induced toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine on the cytotoxic effects of statins on the freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats by collagenase enzyme perfusion via portal vein. Cells were treated with the different concentrations of statins (simvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin), alone or in combination with L-carnitine. Cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarization were assessed as toxicity markers. Furthermore, the effects of statins on cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione reservoirs were evaluated. In accordance with previous studies, an elevation in ROS formation, cellular oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation were observed after statins administration. Moreover, a decrease in cellular reduced glutathione level and cellular mitochondrial membrane potential collapse occurred. L-carnitine co-administration decreased the intensity of aforementioned toxicity markers produced by statins treatment. This study suggests the protective role of L-carnitine against statins-induced cellular damage probably through its anti oxidative and reactive radical scavenging properties as well as its effects on sub cellular components such as mitochondria. The mechanism of L-carnitine protection may be related to its capacity to facilitate fatty acid entry into mitochondria; possibly adenosine tri-phosphate or the reducing equivalents are increased, and the toxic effects of statins toward mitochondria are encountered.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus